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高损伤阈值可饱和吸收体锁模脉冲光纤激光器的研究进展

崔文文 邢笑伟 肖悦嘉 刘文军

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高损伤阈值可饱和吸收体锁模脉冲光纤激光器的研究进展

崔文文, 邢笑伟, 肖悦嘉, 刘文军

Research progress of mode-locked pulsed fiber lasers with high damage threshold saturable absorber

Cui Wen-Wen, Xing Xiao-Wei, Xiao Yue-Jia, Liu Wen-Jun
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  • 光纤激光器作为推动各领域发展的基础硬件, 在轨道交通、光纤通信、新材料制造、动力电池加工、军事国防和医疗等领域都有广泛的应用价值. 光纤激光器被动锁模技术的核心器件是可饱和吸收体, 它对光纤激光器实现高能量、窄脉宽、大功率的激光输出起决定性作用. 依托传统材料和传统结构的可饱和吸收体, 由于无散热机制, 光作用到材料上的光斑大小与光纤出射直径几乎相同, 容易超过可饱和吸收体的损伤阈值从而造成损坏. 因此, 调整可饱和吸收体制备工艺和结构, 对于提高可饱和吸收体的损伤阈值, 实现性能优良、稳定性高的脉冲激光具有重要意义. 本文综述了高损伤阈值可饱和吸收体国内外研究现状, 指出了高损伤阈值可饱和吸收体可能的发展方向.
    As the basic hardware to promote the development of various fields, fiber laser has great development potential in rail transit, optical communication, new material manufacturing, power battery processing, military defense, medical treatment, and other fields. As the core device of passively mode-locked fiber laser, a high damage threshold saturable absorber plays a decisive role in achieving high power, ultrashort pulse duration, and high energy laser output for a fiber laser. For saturable absorbers of traditional materials and structures, the spot size of light acting on the material is almost the same as the exit diameter of the optical fiber, which is easy to exceed the damage threshold of the saturable absorber and lead to damage. To improve the damage threshold of saturable absorbers, the structure of saturable absorbers based on both real materials and traditional saturable absorbers can be optimized. On the one hand, the preparation technology of the saturable absorber is adjusted, such as using the sol-gel method, which has a good effect on improving the damage threshold of the saturable absorber. Moreover, different materials are selected and used as substrates, such as the use of inorganic materials as material substrates and the selection of a variety of insertion cavity structures, such as “sandwich” transmission structures, tapered fibers, and photonic crystal fibers. These methods are of great significance in improving the damage threshold of the real material saturable absorber and realizing pulsed laser with excellent performance and high stability. On the other hand, the equivalent saturable absorber structure is used to improve the damage threshold and optimize the laser performance, such as hybrid mode-locked structure and nonlinear multimode interference. The continuous optimization of the fiber laser damage threshold will further expand its application range. Therefore, it is important to adjust the preparation process and insert the cavity structure of saturable absorbers for improving the damage threshold of the saturable absorber and achieving high performance and stability of the pulsed laser. This paper reviews the research status of high damage threshold saturable absorbers at home and abroad, summarizes the latest methods to improve material damage threshold and the latest research progress of equivalent saturable absorbers, and also points out the future development direction of high damage threshold saturable absorbers.
      通信作者: 刘文军, jungliu@bupt.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11875008, 12075034)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Liu Wen-Jun, jungliu@bupt.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11875008, 12075034).
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  • 图 1  HfO2薄膜的损伤点深度图 (a) 353 K, 39.2 J/cm2; (b) 423 K, 38.6 J/cm2; (c) 503 K, 36.6 J/cm2; (d) 573 K, 31.7 J/cm2[26]

    Fig. 1.  Damage spot depth map of the HfO2 films: (a) 353 K, 39.2 J/cm2; (b) 423 K, 38.6 J/cm2; (c) 503 K, 36.6 J/cm2; (d) 573 K, 31.7 J/cm2[26].

    图 2  不同SA插入结构的环形腔示意图

    Fig. 2.  Schematic diagram of annular cavity with different saturable absorber insertion structures.

    图 3  NPE锁模偏振态示意图

    Fig. 3.  Schematic diagram of nonlinear polarization evolution mode-locked polarization state.

    图 4  拉锥光纤WS2 SA被动锁模掺铒光纤激光器的实验结果 (a)脉冲光谱, 中心波长1540 nm的3 dB带宽为114 nm; (b)脉冲宽度为67 fs[48]

    Fig. 4.  Experimental results of the passively mode-locked EDF laser with the fiber-taper WS2 SA: (a) Optical spectrum of the generated pulses. The 3 dB spectral width is 114 nm at 1540 nm. (b) Intensity autocorrelation trace with 67 fs pulse duration[48].

    图 5  混合锁模结构示意图

    Fig. 5.  Schematic diagram of hybrid mode locking structure.

    图 6  NOLM可饱和吸收原理图

    Fig. 6.  Schematic diagram of nonlinear optical loop mirror saturable absorption.

    图 7  非线性多模干涉可饱和吸收原理图

    Fig. 7.  Schematic diagram of saturable absorption of nonlinear multimode interference.

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    Jiang J W, Fang S B, Zhang Z Y, Zhu J F, Han H N, Chang G Q, Wei Z Y 2020 Chin. Phys. Lett. 37 054201Google Scholar

    [3]

    Ning F J, Li Z Y, Tan R Q, Hu L M, Liu S Y 2020 Chin. Phys. Lett. 37 034203Google Scholar

    [4]

    Xing Z Q, Zhou Y J, Liu Y H, Wang F 2020 Chin. Phys. Lett. 37 027302Google Scholar

    [5]

    Ni X, Jia K P, Wang X H, et al. 2021 Chin. Phys. Lett. 38 064201Google Scholar

    [6]

    Keller U 2003 Nature 424 831Google Scholar

    [7]

    王井上, 张瑶, 王军利, 魏志义, 常国庆 2021 物理学报 70 034206Google Scholar

    Wang J S, Zhang Y, Wang J L,Wei Z Y, Chang G Q 2021 Acta Phys. Sin. 70 034206Google Scholar

    [8]

    Lv R C, Teng H, Song J J, Kang R Z, Zhu J F, Wei Z Y 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 094206Google Scholar

    [9]

    Fermann M E, Hofer M, Haberl F, Craig-Ryan S P 1990 Electron. Lett. 26 1737Google Scholar

    [10]

    Keller U, Knox W H, Roskos H 1990 Springer Berlin Heidelberg 53 69Google Scholar

    [11]

    俞强, 郭琨, 陈捷, 王涛, 汪进, 史鑫尧, 吴坚, 张凯, 周朴 2020 物理学报 69 184208Google Scholar

    Yu Q, Guo K, Chen J, Wang T, Wang J, Shi X Y, Wu J, Zhang K, Zhou P 2020 Acta Phys. Sin. 69 184208Google Scholar

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    郝倩倩, 宗梦雨, 张振, 黄浩, 张峰, 刘杰, 刘丹华, 苏良碧, 张晗 2020 物理学报 69 184205Google Scholar

    Hao Q Q, Zong M Y, Zhang Z, Huang H, Zhang F, Liu J, Liu D H, Su L B, Zhang H 2020 Acta Phys. Sin. 69 184205Google Scholar

    [13]

    Valdmanis J A, Fork R L 1986 IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22 112Google Scholar

    [14]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, et al. 2004 Science 306 666Google Scholar

    [15]

    Delhaes P 2002 Carbon 40 641Google Scholar

    [16]

    Ji D X, Cai S H, Paudel T R, et al. 2019 Nature 570 87Google Scholar

    [17]

    Cicily Rigi V J, Jayaraj M K, Saji K J 2020 Appl. Surf. Sci. 529 147158Google Scholar

    [18]

    Arthur J R 1980 At & T Tech. J. 10 157Google Scholar

    [19]

    Liu W J, Zhu Y N, Liu M L, Wen B, Fang S B, Teng H, Lei M, Liu L M, Wei Z Y 2018 Photonics Res. 6 220Google Scholar

    [20]

    Chen Z, Wang H, Wang Y, Lv R, Yang X, Wang J, Li L, Ren W 2019 Carbon 144 737Google Scholar

    [21]

    Chen Z, Wang Y, Lv R, Liu S, Wang Y 2020 Opt. Fiber Technol. 58 102189Google Scholar

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    Liu S C, Lv R D, Wang Y G, Shang S G, Ren W, Xu Q 2021 J. Mater. Chem. C 9 9021Google Scholar

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    Liu S, Wang Y, Lv R, Wang J, Duan L 2020 Nanophotonics 9 2523Google Scholar

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    Han X, Zhang H, Jiang S, Zhang C, Li D, Guo Q, Gao J, Man B 2019 Nanomaterials 9 1216Google Scholar

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    Wang Y, Song C, Zhang H, Jin L, Xu Y, Ma X, Zou Y 2022 Opt. Laser Technol. 145 107542Google Scholar

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    Salam S, Nizamani B, Yasin M, Harun S W 2021 Results Opt. 2 100036Google Scholar

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    Wu Q, Jin X, Chen S, Jiang X, Hu Y, Jiang Q, Wu L, Li J, Zheng Z, Zhang M, Zhang H 2019 Opt. Express 27 10159

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    Qi Y, Liu M, Luan N, Yang S, Bai Z, Yan B, Lu Z 2022 Infrared Phys. Technol. 121 104017Google Scholar

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    Pu G, Yi L, Zhang L, Luo C, Li Z, Hu W 2020 Light Sci. Appl. 9 1Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-31
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-11
  • 上网日期:  2022-01-18
  • 刊出日期:  2022-01-20

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