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基于铋可饱和吸收体的超快激光产生

袁浩 朱方祥 王金涛 杨蓉 王楠 于洋 闫培光 郭金川

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基于铋可饱和吸收体的超快激光产生

袁浩, 朱方祥, 王金涛, 杨蓉, 王楠, 于洋, 闫培光, 郭金川

Generation of ultra-fast pulse based on bismuth saturable absorber

Yuan Hao, Zhu Fang-Xiang, Wang Jin-Tao, Yang Rong, Wang Nan, Yu Yang, Yan Pei-Guang, Guo Jin-Chuan
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  • 采用磁控溅射沉积法在微纳光纤表面上镀一层纳米级厚度的铋薄膜, 制备了一种微纳光纤-铋膜结构的可饱和吸收体. 在1.5 μm处的非线性光调制深度为14%. 将其应用到掺铒光纤激光器中, 在1.5 μm波段获得稳定的超快脉冲激光产生, 脉宽为357 fs, 输出功率为45.4 mW, 单脉冲能量为2.39 nJ, 信噪比为84 dB. 实验结果表明, 利用磁控溅射法可制备出大调制深度的可饱和吸收体, 为获得高能量超短脉冲激光输出提供新方案.
    We demonstrate a bismuth (Bi) saturable absorber (SA) for generating ultrafast pulse. The Bi SA is fabricated by the Bi film deposited on the surface of microfibers through using magnetron sputtering. Its nonlinear optical properties are investigated. The as-prepared Bi SA has outstanding nonlinear absorption property demonstrated by the open aperture (OA) Z-scan system at 1500 nm and balanced twin-detector method at 1560 nm. The nonlinear optical property of Bi SA shows that the modulation depth, the nonsaturable losses, and the saturable intensity at 1.5 μm are 14% and 79%, and 0.9 MW/cm2, respectively. Besides, the closed aperture (CA) Z-scan measurement is also implemented to estimate the nonlinear refractive index of Bi film. The Bi film shows that the typical CA/OA curve possesses the feature of peak-valley profile, meaning that the sample with a negative nonlinear refractive index is self-defocusing. In our experiments, the parameters of the nonlinear absorption coefficient β and the nonlinear refractive index n2 are estimated at about 2.38 × 10–4 cm/W and –1.47 × 10–9 cm2/W according to the actual experimental data points, respectively. To further investigate its nonlinear optical property, the microfiber-based Bi SA is embedded into an erbium-doped fiber laser with a typical ring cavity structure. Based on the Bi SA device, the stable ultrafast pulses are generated at 1.5 μm with the pulse width of 357 fs, the output power of 45.4 mW, corresponding to the pulse energy of 2.39 nJ, and the signal-to-noise ratio is 84 dB. The stable soliton pulses emitting at 1563 nm are obtained with a 3-dB and 6-nm spectral bandwidth. The experimental results suggest that the microfiber-based Bi SA prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) technique can be used as an excellent photonic device for ultrafast pulse generation in the 1.5 μm regime, and the MSD technique opens a promising way to produce high-performance SA with a large modulation depth, low saturable intensity, and high power tolerance, which are conducible to the generation of high power and ultrafast pulse with high stability.
      通信作者: 王楠, nwang@szu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11704260, 61775146, 61773266, 11904240)、深圳市知识创新计划基础研究项目(批准号: JCYJ20170818144254033, JCYJ20190808141011530)、广东省自然科学基金(批准号: 2018A030310637)和深圳大学新引进教师科研启动项目(批准号: 2017020)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Wang Nan, nwang@szu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11704260, 61775146, 61773266, 11904240), the Science and Technology Research and Development Foundation of Shenzhen, China (Grant No. JCYJ20170818144254033, JCYJ20190808141011530), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2018A030310637) and the Start-up project of scientific research for new teachers of Shenzhen University, China (Grant No. 2017020)
    [1]

    Woodward R I, Kelleher E J R 2015 Appl. Sci. 5 1440Google Scholar

    [2]

    Keller U, Weingarten K J, Kartner F X, Kopf D, Braun B, Jung I D, Fluck R, Honninger C, Matuschek N, Der Au J A 1996 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2 435Google Scholar

    [3]

    Lagatsky A A, Fusari F, Calvez S, Kurilchik S V, Kisel V E, Kuleshov N V, Dawson M D, Brown C T A, Sibbett W 2010 Opt. Lett. 35 172Google Scholar

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    Popa D, Sun Z, Torrisi F, Hasan T, Wang F, Ferrari A C 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 203106Google Scholar

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    Jeong H, Choi S Y, Kim M H, Rotermund F, Cha Y H, Jeong D Y, Lee S B, Lee K, Yeom D I 2016 Opt. Express 24 14152Google Scholar

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    Bao Q, Zhang H, Ni Z, Wang Y, Polavarapu L, Shen Z, Xu Q, Tang D, Loh K P 2011 Nano Res. 4 297Google Scholar

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    Li J, Luo H, Wang L, Zhao C, Zhang H, Li H, Liu Y 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 3659Google Scholar

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    Yan P, Jiang Z, Chen H, Yin J, Lai J, Wang J, He T, Yang J 2018 Opt. Lett. 43 4417Google Scholar

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    Jiang Z, Li J, Chen H, Wang J, Zhang W, Yan P 2018 Opt. Commun. 406 44Google Scholar

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    Luo Z, Li Y, Zhong M, Huang Y, Wan X, Peng J, Weng J 2015 Photonics Res. 3 A79Google Scholar

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    Mao D, Du B, Yang D, Zhang S, Wang Y, Zhang W, She X, Cheng H, Zeng H, Zhao J 2016 Small 12 1489Google Scholar

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    Wang J, Jiang Z, Chen H, Li J, Yin J, Wang J, He T, Yan P, Ruan S 2018 Photonics Res. 6 535Google Scholar

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    Luo Z C, Liu M, Guo Z N, Jiang X F, Luo A P, Zhao C J, Yu X F, Xu W C, Zhang H 2015 Opt. Express 23 20030Google Scholar

    [14]

    Sotor J, Sobon G, Kowalczyk M, Macherzynski W, Paletko P, Abramski K M 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 3885Google Scholar

    [15]

    Qin Z, Xie G, Zhao C, Wen S, Yuan P, Qian L 2016 Opt. Lett. 41 56Google Scholar

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    Song Y W, Jang S Y, Han W S, Bae M K 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 051122Google Scholar

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    Sobon G, Sotor J, Pasternak I, Krajewska A, Strupinski W, Abramski K M 2015 Opt. Mater. Express 5 2884Google Scholar

    [18]

    Chen Y, Chen S, Liu J, Gao Y, Zhang W 2016 Opt. Express 24 13316Google Scholar

    [19]

    Zhang S, Xie M, Li F, Yan Z, Li Y, Kan E, Liu W, Chen Z, Zeng H 2016 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55 1666Google Scholar

    [20]

    Wang G, Pandey R, Karna S P 2015 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 11490Google Scholar

    [21]

    Zhang S, Yan Z, Li Y, Chen Z, Zeng H 2015 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54 3112Google Scholar

    [22]

    Zhao M, Zhang X, Li L 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 16108Google Scholar

    [23]

    Pizzi G, Gibertini M, Dib E, Marzari N, Iannaccone G, Fiori G 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12585Google Scholar

    [24]

    Ares P, Aguilar-Galindo F, Rodríguez-San-Miguel D, Aldave D A, Díaz-Tendero S, Alcamí M, Martín F, Gómez-Herrero J, Zamora F 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 6515Google Scholar

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    Ji J, Song X, Liu J, Yan Z, Huo C, Zhang S, Su M, Liao L, Wang W, Ni Z, Hao Y, Zeng H 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 13352Google Scholar

    [26]

    Jiang Z, Chen H, Li J, Yin J, Wang J, Yan P 2017 Appl. Phys. Express 10 122702Google Scholar

    [27]

    Haro-Poniatowski E, Jouanne M, Morhange J F, Kanehisa M, Serna R, Afonso C N 1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 10080Google Scholar

    [28]

    Lu L, Liang Z, Wu L, Chen Y, Song Y, Dhanabalan S C, Ponraj J S, Dong B, Xiang Y, Xing F, Fan D, Zhang H 2018 Laser Photonics Rev. 12 1700221Google Scholar

    [29]

    Chai T, Li X, Feng T, Guo P, Song Y, Chen Y, Zhang H 2018 Nanoscale 10 17617Google Scholar

    [30]

    Guo B, Wang S, Wu Z, Wang Z, Wang D, Huang H, Zhang F, Ge Y, Zhang H 2018 Opt. Express 26 22750Google Scholar

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    Yang Q, Liu R, Huang C, Huang Y, Gao L, Sun B, Huang Z, Zhang L, Hu C, Zhang Z, Sun C, Wang Q, Tang Y, Zhang H 2018 Nanoscale 10 21106Google Scholar

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    Wang C, Wang L, Li X, Luo W, Feng T, Zhang Y, Guo P, Ge Y 2019 Nanotechnology 30 025204

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    Guo P, Li X, Chai T, Feng T, Ge Y, Song Y, Wang Y 2019 Nanotechnology 30 354002Google Scholar

  • 图 1  铋薄膜表征结果 (a)覆盖铋薄膜拉锥光纤的锥区扫描电子显微镜图像, 插图为铋薄膜的表面形貌; (b)镀铋膜的光纤端面; (c)铋薄膜沉积在光纤上的厚度; (d)铋薄膜的拉曼光谱; (e)铋薄膜的XRD图; (f)铋薄膜的线性透过率

    Fig. 1.  Bi film characterization results: (a) Scanning electron microscope images for the taper region of the microfiber coated with the bismuth film (the inset shows the surface morphology of the bismuth film); (b) optical fiber end face with bismuth coating; (c) thickness of bismuth thin film deposited on optical fiber; (d) Raman spectrum of bismuth film; (e) XRD diagram of the bismuth film; (f) linear transmittance of bismuth thin film.

    图 2  微纳光纤-铋SA的非线性表征 (a)没有和(b)具有650 nm引导光时样品腰部区域的光学显微镜图像; (c) SA的饱和吸收特性

    Fig. 2.  Nonlinear characterization of micro-nano fiber-bismuth SA: Optical microscope images of the waist region of the sample (a) without and (b) with the guiding 650 nm light; (c) saturable absorption property of SA.

    图 3  (a)不同激发功率下的标准开孔Z扫描曲线; (b)标准化的闭孔/开孔Z扫描曲线

    Fig. 3.  (a) Normalized open-aperture Z-scan traces with different excitation powers; (b) normalized close-aperture/ open-aperture Z-scan trace.

    图 4  实验装置图

    Fig. 4.  Experimental device diagram.

    图 5  1.5 μm锁模特性 (a)锁模光谱; (b)基频为19.0 MHz、分辨率为10 Hz的射频频谱, 插图显示了2 GHz跨度的射频频谱; (c)具有sech2拟合的脉冲持续时间为357 fs输出脉冲的自相关轨迹, 插图是输出脉冲的时间序列图; (d)输出功率/脉冲能量随着输入功率的变化

    Fig. 5.  Mode-locking characteristics at 1.5 μm: (a) Mode-locking optical spectrum; (b) RF spectrum at a fundamental frequency of 19.0 MHz with 10 Hz resolution; the inset shows the RF spectrum of 100 MHz span; (c) autocorrelation trace for an output pulse with a pulse duration of 357 fs with sech2 fit; the inset is the oscilloscope trace of the output pulse train; (d) relationship between the input power and laser output power/pulse energy.

    表 1  基于铋SA不同锁模激光器的比较

    Table 1.  Comparison of different mode-locked lasers based on Bi saturable absorbers.

    FabricationIntegration methodλc/nmSNR/dBPpump/Pave/mWE/nJτ/fsαs/%来源
    LPEMicrofiber1559.1855542/1.150.136522.03Ref. [28]
    LPEMicrofiber1034.445238/8.35302502.2Ref. [29]
    LPEMicrofiber156155350/5.61935.6Ref. [30]
    LPEGold mirror20302000/1106.6978Ref. [31]
    LPEMicrofiber1557.525—/122.1621.52.4Ref. [32]
    LPEMicrofiber153156.54314/1.30.3513002.5Ref. [33]
    MSDMicrofiber156384280/45.42.3935714This work
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Woodward R I, Kelleher E J R 2015 Appl. Sci. 5 1440Google Scholar

    [2]

    Keller U, Weingarten K J, Kartner F X, Kopf D, Braun B, Jung I D, Fluck R, Honninger C, Matuschek N, Der Au J A 1996 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 2 435Google Scholar

    [3]

    Lagatsky A A, Fusari F, Calvez S, Kurilchik S V, Kisel V E, Kuleshov N V, Dawson M D, Brown C T A, Sibbett W 2010 Opt. Lett. 35 172Google Scholar

    [4]

    Popa D, Sun Z, Torrisi F, Hasan T, Wang F, Ferrari A C 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 203106Google Scholar

    [5]

    Jeong H, Choi S Y, Kim M H, Rotermund F, Cha Y H, Jeong D Y, Lee S B, Lee K, Yeom D I 2016 Opt. Express 24 14152Google Scholar

    [6]

    Bao Q, Zhang H, Ni Z, Wang Y, Polavarapu L, Shen Z, Xu Q, Tang D, Loh K P 2011 Nano Res. 4 297Google Scholar

    [7]

    Li J, Luo H, Wang L, Zhao C, Zhang H, Li H, Liu Y 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 3659Google Scholar

    [8]

    Yan P, Jiang Z, Chen H, Yin J, Lai J, Wang J, He T, Yang J 2018 Opt. Lett. 43 4417Google Scholar

    [9]

    Jiang Z, Li J, Chen H, Wang J, Zhang W, Yan P 2018 Opt. Commun. 406 44Google Scholar

    [10]

    Luo Z, Li Y, Zhong M, Huang Y, Wan X, Peng J, Weng J 2015 Photonics Res. 3 A79Google Scholar

    [11]

    Mao D, Du B, Yang D, Zhang S, Wang Y, Zhang W, She X, Cheng H, Zeng H, Zhao J 2016 Small 12 1489Google Scholar

    [12]

    Wang J, Jiang Z, Chen H, Li J, Yin J, Wang J, He T, Yan P, Ruan S 2018 Photonics Res. 6 535Google Scholar

    [13]

    Luo Z C, Liu M, Guo Z N, Jiang X F, Luo A P, Zhao C J, Yu X F, Xu W C, Zhang H 2015 Opt. Express 23 20030Google Scholar

    [14]

    Sotor J, Sobon G, Kowalczyk M, Macherzynski W, Paletko P, Abramski K M 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 3885Google Scholar

    [15]

    Qin Z, Xie G, Zhao C, Wen S, Yuan P, Qian L 2016 Opt. Lett. 41 56Google Scholar

    [16]

    Song Y W, Jang S Y, Han W S, Bae M K 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 051122Google Scholar

    [17]

    Sobon G, Sotor J, Pasternak I, Krajewska A, Strupinski W, Abramski K M 2015 Opt. Mater. Express 5 2884Google Scholar

    [18]

    Chen Y, Chen S, Liu J, Gao Y, Zhang W 2016 Opt. Express 24 13316Google Scholar

    [19]

    Zhang S, Xie M, Li F, Yan Z, Li Y, Kan E, Liu W, Chen Z, Zeng H 2016 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55 1666Google Scholar

    [20]

    Wang G, Pandey R, Karna S P 2015 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 11490Google Scholar

    [21]

    Zhang S, Yan Z, Li Y, Chen Z, Zeng H 2015 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54 3112Google Scholar

    [22]

    Zhao M, Zhang X, Li L 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 16108Google Scholar

    [23]

    Pizzi G, Gibertini M, Dib E, Marzari N, Iannaccone G, Fiori G 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12585Google Scholar

    [24]

    Ares P, Aguilar-Galindo F, Rodríguez-San-Miguel D, Aldave D A, Díaz-Tendero S, Alcamí M, Martín F, Gómez-Herrero J, Zamora F 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 6515Google Scholar

    [25]

    Ji J, Song X, Liu J, Yan Z, Huo C, Zhang S, Su M, Liao L, Wang W, Ni Z, Hao Y, Zeng H 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 13352Google Scholar

    [26]

    Jiang Z, Chen H, Li J, Yin J, Wang J, Yan P 2017 Appl. Phys. Express 10 122702Google Scholar

    [27]

    Haro-Poniatowski E, Jouanne M, Morhange J F, Kanehisa M, Serna R, Afonso C N 1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 10080Google Scholar

    [28]

    Lu L, Liang Z, Wu L, Chen Y, Song Y, Dhanabalan S C, Ponraj J S, Dong B, Xiang Y, Xing F, Fan D, Zhang H 2018 Laser Photonics Rev. 12 1700221Google Scholar

    [29]

    Chai T, Li X, Feng T, Guo P, Song Y, Chen Y, Zhang H 2018 Nanoscale 10 17617Google Scholar

    [30]

    Guo B, Wang S, Wu Z, Wang Z, Wang D, Huang H, Zhang F, Ge Y, Zhang H 2018 Opt. Express 26 22750Google Scholar

    [31]

    Yang Q, Liu R, Huang C, Huang Y, Gao L, Sun B, Huang Z, Zhang L, Hu C, Zhang Z, Sun C, Wang Q, Tang Y, Zhang H 2018 Nanoscale 10 21106Google Scholar

    [32]

    Wang C, Wang L, Li X, Luo W, Feng T, Zhang Y, Guo P, Ge Y 2019 Nanotechnology 30 025204

    [33]

    Guo P, Li X, Chai T, Feng T, Ge Y, Song Y, Wang Y 2019 Nanotechnology 30 354002Google Scholar

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  • 收稿日期:  2019-12-30
  • 修回日期:  2020-02-15
  • 刊出日期:  2020-05-05

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