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高温超导体电子结构和超导机理的角分辨光电子能谱研究

赵林 刘国东 周兴江

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高温超导体电子结构和超导机理的角分辨光电子能谱研究

赵林, 刘国东, 周兴江

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies on the electronic structure and superconductivity mechanism for high temperature superconductors

Zhao Lin, Liu Guo-Dong, Zhou Xing-Jiang
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  • 超导是一种奇异的宏观量子现象. 100多年来, 已发现的超导体主要分为两类: 以金属或者合金为代表的常规超导体以及以铜氧化物和铁基高温超导体为代表的非常规超导体. 常规超导体的超导机理能被BCS超导理论完美解释, 但高温超导体的超导机理至今仍未达成共识, 已经成为凝聚态物理领域中长期争论且充满挑战的重大科学问题. 从实验上揭示非常规超导材料的微观电子结构, 是理解其奇异正常态和超导电性机理、建立新理论的前提和基础. 角分辨光电子能谱技术, 由于可以实现对材料中电子的能量、动量和自旋的直接测量, 在高温超导研究中发挥了重要的作用. 本文综述了我们利用角分辨光电子能谱技术在铜氧化物和铁基高温超导体电子结构和超导机理研究中取得的一些进展, 主要包括母体的电子结构、正常态的非费米液体行为、超导态的能带和超导能隙结构以及多体相互作用等. 这些结果为理解铜氧化物和铁基高温超导体的物性及超导机理提供了重要的信息.
    Superconductivity represents a magic macroscopic quantum phenomenon. There have been two major categories of superconductors: the conventional superconductors represented by metals or alloys; and the unconventional superconductors represented by cuprates and iron-based high-temperature superconductors. While the superconductivity mechanism of the conventional superconductors is successfully addressed by the BCS theory of superconductivity, no consensus has been reached in understanding the high temperature superconductivity mechanism for more than 30 years, which has become one of the most prominent issues in condensed matter physics. Revealing the microscopic electronic structure of unconventional superconductors is the prerequisite and foundation in understanding their superconductivity. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) plays an important role in the study of unconventional superconductors because it can directly measure the electronic structure of materials. In this paper, our recent progress in the ARPES study of electronic structure and superconductivity mechanism of high temperature cuprate superconductors and iron-based superconductors is reviewed. It mainly includes the electronic structure of the parent compound, the non-Fermi liquid behavior in the normal state, the band and gap structure of the superconducting state, and the many-body interactions both in the normal and superconducting states. These results will provide important information in understanding the superconductivity mechanism of Cu-based and Fe-based superconductors.
      通信作者: 赵林, lzhao@iphy.ac.cn ; 周兴江, xjzhou@iphy.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2016YFA0300300, 2017YFA0302900, 2018YFA0704200)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11888101, 11922414)和中国科学院战略先导项目(批准号: XDB25000000)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Zhao Lin, lzhao@iphy.ac.cn ; Zhou Xing-Jiang, xjzhou@iphy.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0300300, 2017YFA0302900, 2018YFA0704200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11888101, 11922414), and the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. XDB25000000)
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  • 图 1  (a) ARPES的原理示意图; (b) 微观电子参量的直接获取

    Fig. 1.  (a) Schematic diagram for the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES); (b) Direct detection of various fundamental physical quantities using ARPES.

    图 2  飞行时间电子能量分析器的结构示意图以及原位观测到的Sb(111)费米面(左下角)和探测器的结构图(右下角)[20]

    Fig. 2.  Schematic three dimensional drawing of ARToF electron energy analyzer. The analyzer consists of an electrostatic lens system and an MCP/DLD detector. The bottom-left inset shows a Fermi surface of Sb(111) that is in situ observed. The bottom-right inset shows a zoom-in view of the MCP/DLD unit[20].

    图 3  不同层数铜基高温超导体的晶体结构(从左到右依次为单层、双层和三层铜基超导体)[24]

    Fig. 3.  Crystal structure of cuprates with different layer numbers from 1 to 3[24].

    图 4  不同体系铁基超导体的晶体结构以及导电层的投影图[25]

    Fig. 4.  Crystal structures for several major classes of iron-based superconductors and their conducting layer projection[25].

    图 5  铜氧化物高温超导体和铁基超导体中的能带结构和费米面 (a) La2CuO4的能带结构; (b) La2CuO4的费米面; (c) 典型铁基超导体系的计算能带结构; (d) 典型铁基超导体系的费米面[29,30]

    Fig. 5.  Band structures and Fermi surfaces of high temperature cuprate superconductors and iron-based superconductors: (a) Band structures of La2CuO4; (b) Fermi surfaces of La2CuO4; (c) band structures of iron-based superconductors; (d) Fermi surfaces of iron-based superconductors [29,30]

    图 6  铜氧化物高温超导体的电子结构相图[8]

    Fig. 6.  Electronic phase diagram of high temperature cuprate superconductors[8].

    图 7  半填充关联电子系统能隙打开的情况[17] (a)无关联金属态; (b)莫特绝缘体态; (c)电荷转移绝缘体; (d) Zhang-Rice单态

    Fig. 7.  Opening of a correlation gap in the half-filled correlated materials[17]: (a) The system is metallic in the absence of electronic correlations; (b) a Mott insulator; (c) a charge-transfer insulator; (d) Zhang-Rice singlet (ZRS) states.

    图 8  Ca2CuO2Cl2的等能面 (a)在0.25 eV束缚能; (b)在0.6 eV束缚能. (c)观测到的两个潜在费米面. (d)沿着两个潜在费米面上的能带顶部能量分布[49]

    Fig. 8.  Constant energy contour of Ca2CuO2Cl2 at a binding energy of 0.25 eV (a) and 0.60 eV (b). (c) Two remnant Fermi surface sheets observed. (d) The energy distribution along the two remnant Fermi surface sheets[49].

    图 9  Ca3Cu2O4Cl2母体随电子掺杂的电子结构演化[53] (a)沿(0, 0)–(π, π)节点方向能带结构随掺杂的演变; (b)在(π, 0)反节点区域能带结构随掺杂的演变; (c), (d)分别对应于图(a)和图(b)的角积分光电子能谱; (e), (f)从实验结果获得的节点和反节点电子结构随掺杂演变的示意图[53]

    Fig. 9.  Electronic structure evolution with electron doping for the parent compound Ca3Cu2O4Cl2: (a) Doping evolution of bands along (0, 0)–(π, π) nodal direction; (b) Doping evolution of bands near (π, 0) antinodal region; (c), (d) Integrated energy distribution curves (EDCs) corresponding to Fig.(a) and Fig.(b), respectively; (e), (f) Schematic representations of electronic structure evolution with doping for the nodal region and antinodal region, respectively[53].

    图 10  Bi2212沿(0, 0)–(π, π)节点方向的能带结构, 在空穴掺杂浓度0−0.066之间随掺杂浓度的演变[54]

    Fig. 10.  Band structure evolution with hole doping in the doping range of 0−0.066 in Bi2212 measured along the (0, 0)–(π, π) nodal direction[54].

    图 11  Bi2201中沿节点方向能带结构随空穴掺杂浓度的演变. (a)−(g) 能带结构的演变; (h), (i) 光电子能谱谱线随空穴掺杂的变化; (j) Bi2201的电子相图[55]

    Fig. 11.  Band structure evolution with hole doping in Bi2201: (a)−(g) Band structure along (0, 0)–(π, π) nodal direction; (h) Photoemission spectra (EDCs) at Fermi momentum for different doping levels; (i)The corresponding symmetrized EDCs; (j) Electronic phase diagram of Bi2201[55].

    图 12  欠掺杂Bi2Sr2CuO6样品的费米面随掺杂的演化[67]: (a)−(d) 不同掺杂浓度(0.10, 0.11, 0.12, 0.16)的Bi2201观察到的费米面; (e)−(h)沿节点方向能带在费米能级处对应的动量分布曲线; (i)Bi2201观察到的费米面的总结

    Fig. 12.  Fermi surface evolution with hole doping for the underdoped Bi2Sr2CuO6[67]: (a)−(d) Fermi surface mappings for Bi2201 with different hole-doping levels(0.10, 0.11, 0.12 and 0.16); (e)−(h)Momentum distribution curves (MDCs) at the Fermi level for the bands measured along the nodal direction; (i) Summary of measured Fermi surface for Bi2201 with different doping levels.

    图 13  Bi2212中观察到的费米面和能带的选择性杂化[75] (a)Bi2212的主能带和超结构能带; (b) 实验测得的在第二象限的费米面结构; (c)费米面结构的选择性杂化能解释实验现象

    Fig. 13.  Selective band hybridization in Bi2212[75] (a) Schematic main Fermi surface and superstructure Fermi surface in Bi2212; (b) Measured Fermi surface in the second quadrant; (c) Selective band structure hybridization that can explain the observed result

    图 14  过掺杂Bi2212(Tc = 75 K)的费米面和能带结构[76]; (a), (b) 在20和90 K测量的费米面; (c), (d)沿两个动量方向测得的能带及在费米能级处的动量分布曲线

    Fig. 14.  Fermi surface and band structure for the overdoped Bi2212(Tc = 75 K)[76]: (a), (b) Fermi surface measured at 20 K and 90 K; (c), (d) Band structures measured along two momentum cuts, and the corresponding MDCs at the Fermi level.

    图 15  Bi2201过掺杂区域费米面随着掺杂浓度的演化[77]

    Fig. 15.  Fermi surface evolution with the hole doping level for Bi2201 in heavily overdoped region[77].

    图 16  最佳掺杂Bi2Sr1.6La0.4CuO6的超导能隙以及能隙的温度演化行为[78] (a) 测量的费米面; (b) 超导能隙随着动量的变化; (c) 超导能隙随温度的变化

    Fig. 16.  Momentum dependence and temperature dependence of the superconducting gap in the optimally-doped Bi2Sr1.6La0.4CuO6[78].

    图 17  最佳掺杂Bi2212 (Tc = 91 K)超导能隙的动量分布, 和反节点区域的费米动量随温度的演化[79]

    Fig. 17.  Momentum dependence of superconducting gap for the optimally-doped Bi2212 with Tc = 91 K and temperature dependence of the Fermi momentum near the antinodal region[79].

    图 18  过掺杂Bi2212(Tc = 75 K)中两个费米面上的超导能隙[76]

    Fig. 18.  Different superconducting gap observed on the two Fermi surface sheets in Bi2212 (Overdoped, Tc = 75 K)[76].

    图 19  最佳掺杂Bi2212沿着节点高对称方向的色散和有效电子自能[89]

    Fig. 19.  Band structure and effective self-energy along nodal direction for optimally-doped Bi2212[89].

    图 20  Bi2212的两个耦合模式的动量依赖关系[91]

    Fig. 20.  Momentum dependence of two coupling modes in Bi2212[91].

    图 21  Pb-Bi2201正常态的能带色散以及Eliashberg函数数据反演过程[96]

    Fig. 21.  Normal state dispersion of Pb-Bi2201 and inversion process of extracting the Eliashberg function[96].

    图 22  轻度欠掺杂Bi2212(Tc = 89 K)样品节点方向反演获得的正常自能和配对自能[97]

    Fig. 22.  Normal self energy and pairing self energy subtracted from lightly underdoped Bi2212 (Tc = 89 K)along nodal direction[97].

    图 23  通过角分辨光电子能谱测量获得的高温超导体Bi2212的正常自能和配对自能[99]

    Fig. 23.  Normal self-energy and pairing self-energy for Bi2212 from ARPES measurements[99].

    图 24  高温超导体Bi2212通过Eliashberg方程反演获得的正常关联谱函数以及配对关联谱函数[99]

    Fig. 24.  Normal Eliashberg function and pairing Eliashberg function for Bi2212[99].

    图 25  Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2的两个费米面的超导态能隙对称性以及能隙和准粒子寿命的温度演化[100]

    Fig. 25.  Momentum dependent superconducting gap and temperature dependent gap and lifetime of single quasiparticle[100].

    图 26  KCa2Fe4As4F2的晶体结构, 能带结构和超导能隙[106]

    Fig. 26.  Crystal structure, band structure and superconducting gap symmetry for KCa2Fe4As4F2[106].

    图 27  单层FeSe/STO薄膜母体的ARPES和STM结果以及电子结构相图[109]

    Fig. 27.  ARPES, STS results Phase diagram for the single layer FeSe/STO film[109].

    图 28  (a)单层FeSe/STO薄膜的费米面以及(b)二次微分费米面; (c), (d)高对称方向的能带结构和对应的扣除高温能带后的结果; (e) 费米动量处能量分布曲线的尖峰与低谷之间差值的温度演化[119]

    Fig. 28.  (a), (b) Fermi surface and second derived Fermi surface for the single layer FeSe/STO film; (c), (d) Band structures along two cuts marked in Fig. (a) and band structures divided by their corresponding band structure at high temperature; (e) Temperature evolution of the difference between the peak and dip for the EDCs at kF[119].

    图 29  块材单畴FeSe在不同极化光条件下的费米面和能带[131]

    Fig. 29.  Fermi surface and band structure for single domain bulk FeSe measured under different polarization geometries[131].

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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-13
  • 修回日期:  2020-12-21
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