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基于石墨烯的太赫兹波散射可调谐超表面

张银 冯一军 姜田 曹杰 赵俊明 朱博

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基于石墨烯的太赫兹波散射可调谐超表面

张银, 冯一军, 姜田, 曹杰, 赵俊明, 朱博

Graphene based tunable metasurface for terahertz scattering manipulation

Zhang Yin, Feng Yi-Jun, Jiang Tian, Cao Jie, Zhao Jun-Ming, Zhu Bo
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  • 设计了一个可调谐的太赫兹超表面,由在随机反射超表面基底中嵌入可偏置的双层石墨烯构成,可以实现对太赫兹波散射特性的动态调控.全波仿真试验结果证实了所预期的超表面散射可调性能.通过增大偏置电压提升石墨烯的费米能级,使得该超表面的太赫兹波散射样式从漫反射逐渐向镜面反射过渡,从而实现散射特性的连续调控,且该超表面具有对电磁波极化角度不敏感的特点.这些特性使得该超表面能很好地融合到变化的环境中,在太赫兹隐身方面具有潜在的应用价值.
    Recently, the terahertz waves have attracted increasing attention due to the growing practical applications in astronomy, communication, imaging, spectroscopy, etc. While the metasurfaces, with extraordinary ability to control the electromagnetic waves, have been increasingly employed to tailor their interaction with terahertz waves and offer fascinating capabilities unavailable from natural materials. However, there are more and more requirements for the dynamical tune of the responses to electromagnetic components for the practical applications such as the terahertz stealth in variable environment. As such, considerable attention to terahertz frequencies has been focused on the tunable metasurfaces. Graphene has been proved to be a good candidate to meet the requirements for tunable electromagnetic properties, especially at the terahertz frequencies. In this paper, we design a tunable terahertz metasurface and achieve dynamically manipulating the scattering of terahertz waves. The metasurface is constructed by embedding double graphene layers with voltage control into the polyimide substrate of the diffuse scattering metasurface, which consists of the random array of rectangular metal patches, polyimide substrate, and metal ground. By adjusting the bias voltage on the double graphene layers, the terahertz scattering distribution can be controlled. At zero bias, the conductivity of graphene approaches to zero, and the random phase distribution is formed over the metasurface so that the reflected terahertz waves are dispersed into the upper half space with much lower intensity from various directions. With the bias voltage increasing, the conductivity of graphene increases, then the changeable range of the phase over the metasurface can be changed from 2up to up/4. As a result, the random phase distribution of the metasurface is gradually destroyed and increasingly transformed into a uniform phase distribution, resulting in the scattering characteristic changes from the approximate diffuse reflection to the specular reflection. The expected performance of proposed metasurface is demonstrated through the full-wave simulation. The corresponding results show that the terahertz scattering pattern of the metasurface is gradually varied from diffuse scattering to specular reflection by dynamically increasing the Fermi level of graphene through increasing the bias voltage. Moreover, the performance of the proposed metasurface is insensitive to the polarization of the incident wave. All of these indicate that the proposed metasurface can continuously control the scattering characteristics of terahertz wave. Thus, the proposed metasurface can be well integrated into the changing environment, and may offer potential stealth applications at terahertz frequencies. Moreover, as we employ complete graphene layers as the controlling elements instead of structured graphene layers in other metamaterial designs, the proposed metasurface may provide an example of relating the theory to possible experimental realization in tunable graphene metasurfaces.
      通信作者: 姜田, jt@nju.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 江苏省自然科学基金(批准号:BK20151393)、国家科技支撑计划(批准号:2015BAD18B02,2015BAK36B02)和粮食公益性行业科研专项(批准号:201513004)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Jiang Tian, jt@nju.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151393), the National Key Technologies Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015BAD18B02, 2015BAK36B02), and the China Special Fund for Grain-Scientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 201513004).
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  • [1]

    Sirtori C 2002 Nature 417 132

    [2]

    Williams G P 2005 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 301

    [3]

    Tonouchi M 2007 Nature Photon. 1 97

    [4]

    Song H J, Nagatsuma T 2011 IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1 256

    [5]

    Liu X, Tyler T, Starr T, Starr A F, Jokerst N M, Padilla W J 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 045901

    [6]

    Bao D, Shen X P, Cui T J 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 228701 (in Chinese)[鲍迪, 沈晓鹏, 崔铁军2015物理学报64 228701]

    [7]

    Yu N, Genevet P, Kats M A, Aieta F, Tetienne J P, Capasso F, Gaburro Z 2011 Science 334 333

    [8]

    Holloway C L, Kuester E F, Gordon J A, O' Hara J, Booth J, Smith D R 2012 IEEE Antenn. Propag. Magazine 54 10

    [9]

    Zhao J M, Sima B Y, Jia N, Wang C, Zhu B, Jiang T, Feng Y J 2016 Opt. Express 24 27849

    [10]

    Sun S, He Q, Xiao S, Xu Q, Li X, Zhou L 2012 Nat. Mater. 11 426

    [11]

    Zhu B, Feng Y J 2015 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63 5500

    [12]

    Zhu B, Chen K, Jia N, Sun L, Zhao J M, Jiang T, Feng Y J 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 4971

    [13]

    Yang L, Fan F, Chen M, Zhang X Z, Chang S J 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 080702 (in Chinese)[杨磊, 范飞, 陈猛, 张选洲, 常胜江2016物理学报65 080702]

    [14]

    Liu S, Cui T J, Xu Q, Bao D, Du L L, Wan X, Tang W X, Ouyang C M, Zhou X Y, Yuan H, Ma H F, Jiang W X, Han J G, Zhang W L, Cheng Q 2016 Light:Sci. Appl. 5 e16076

    [15]

    Cui T J, Qi M Q, Wan X, Zhao J, Cheng Q 2014 Light:Sci. Appl. 3 e218

    [16]

    Gao L H, Cheng Q, Yang J, Ma S J, Zhao J, Liu S, Chen H B, He Q, Jiang W X, Ma H F, Wen Q Y, Liang L J, Jin B B, Liu W W, Zhou L, Yao J Q, Wu P H, Cui T J 2015 Light:Sci. Appl. 4 e324

    [17]

    Zhang Y, Liang L J, Yang J, Feng Y J, Zhu B, Zhao J, Jiang T, Jin B B, Liu W W 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 26875

    [18]

    Chen K, Feng Y J, Yang Z J, Cui L, Zhao J M, Zhu B, Jiang T 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 35968

    [19]

    Liang L J, Qi M Q, Yang J, Shen X P, Zhai J Q, Xu W Z, Jin B B, Liu W W, Feng Y J, Zhang C H, Lu H, Chen H T, Kang L, Xu W W, Chen J, Cui T J, Wu P H, Liu S G 2015 Adv. Opt. Mater. 3 1374

    [20]

    Sun S, Yang K Y, Wang C M, Juan T K, Chen W T, Liao C Y, He Q, Xiao S Y, kung W T, Guo G Y, Zhou L, Tsai D P 2012 Nano Lett. 12 6223

    [21]

    Chen H T, Padilla W J, Zide J M, Gossard A C, Taylor A J, Averitt R D 2006 Nature 444 597

    [22]

    Feng W, Zhang R, Cao J C 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 229501 (in Chinese)[冯伟, 张戎, 曹俊诚2015物理学报64 229501]

    [23]

    Ju L, Geng B, Horng J, Girit C, Martin M, Hao Z, Bechtel H A, Liang X, Zettl A, Shen Y R, Wang F 2011 Nat. Nanotechnol. 6 630

    [24]

    Lee S H, Choi M, Kim T T, Lee S, Liu M, Yin X, Choi H K, Lee S S, Choi C G, Choi S Y, Zhang X, Min B 2012 Nat. Mater. 11 936

    [25]

    Zhang Y, Feng Y J, Zhu B, Zhao J M, Jiang T 2014 Opt. Express 22 22743

    [26]

    Zhang Y, Feng Y J, Zhu B, Zhao J M, Jiang T 2015 Opt. Express 23 27230

    [27]

    Xu B Z, Gu C Q, Li Z, Niu Z Y 2013 Opt. Express 21 23803

    [28]

    Zhang H Y, Huang X Y, Chen Q, Ding C F, Li T T, L H H, Xu S L, Zhang X, Zhang Y P, Yao J Q 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 018101 (in Chinese)[张会云, 黄晓燕, 陈琦, 丁春峰, 李彤彤, 吕欢欢, 徐世林, 张晓, 张玉萍, 姚建铨2016物理学报65 018101]

    [29]

    Hanson G W 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 064302

    [30]

    Kim J Y, Lee C, Bae S, Kim K S, Hong B H, Choi E J 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 201907

    [31]

    Gmez-Daz J S, Perruisseau-Carrier J 2013 Opt. Express 21 15490

    [32]

    Rodriguez B S, Yan R, Kelly M, Fang T, Tahy K, Hwang W S, Jena D, Liu L, Xing H L G 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 780

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-05-02
  • 修回日期:  2017-06-16
  • 刊出日期:  2017-10-05

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