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预加温处理对双极晶体管过剩基极电流理想因子的影响机制

董磊 杨剑群 甄兆丰 李兴冀

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预加温处理对双极晶体管过剩基极电流理想因子的影响机制

董磊, 杨剑群, 甄兆丰, 李兴冀

Effects of pre-irradiated thermal treatment on ideal factor of excess base current in bipolar transistors

Dong Lei, Yang Jian-Qun, Zhen Zhao-Feng, Li Xing-Ji
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  • 基于60Co γ射线辐照源, 针对有/无Kovar合金金属帽的横向PNP晶体管(LPNP), 探究预加温处理对双极晶体管电离辐射损伤的影响. 通过半导体参数测试仪对辐照前后LPNP晶体管电性能参数进行测试. 利用深能级瞬态谱分析仪(DLTS), 对辐照前后LPNP晶体管电离缺陷进行表征. 研究结果表明, 未开帽处理的晶体管过剩基极电流(ΔIB)增加更明显, 理想因子n随发射结电压(VEB)的增加逐渐降低, 转换电压(Vtr)明显向低发射结电压方向移动. 分析认为这是由于基区表面辐射诱导界面态复合率发生变化, 界面态数量增多导致n值的变化. DLTS谱证实界面态是导致LPNP晶体管电性能退化的主要原因, 未开帽处理的LPNP晶体管中辐照诱导的界面态数量明显增多, 这是由于采用Kovar合金制备的金属帽中含有大量的氢, 氢的存在会促进界面态的形成. 而对于开帽处理的LPNP晶体管, 在预处理过程中除去金属帽后器件内氢气逸出, 腔内氢气含量降低, 因此导致晶体管内部产生的界面态数量减少, 使LPNP晶体管电性能退化程度降低.
    During the service of the spacecraft, it will be disturbed by the energetic particles and rays, and thus induce total ionizing dose (TID), displacement damage (DD) or single event effect (SEE) to generate inside the electronic system, which can seriously affect the service lifetime of the electronic components. The difference in structure and types of electronic components are less sensitive to the radiation effects, but bipolar transistor is strongly sensitive to ionizing radiation effect. As a basic component of bipolar circuits, the in-depth study of bipolar transistor ionization radiation effect is of significance for engineering.It has been shown that the an amount of hydrogen can inevitably introduced from an external source during the sealing process of the devices. The KOVAR alloy is widely used as a metal cap material of bipolar transistor in the process of encapsulation. The residual gas analysis (RGA) for sealed Kovar lid packages is shown to have 1%–2% of the hydrogen in the cavity. The source of the hydrogen is generally considered to be out-gassing from the gold plating on the KOVAR. So far, the researches have focused on the study of the ionization damage effect of bipolar transistors with different structures under 60Co gamma ray irradiation. There is lack of systemic study on the comparison of transistors packaged with and without cap.In this paper, we study the influence of sealed KOVAR lid packaged on ionizing radiation damage of lateral PNP bipolar transistor (LPNP) by using 60Co gamma ray as an irradiation source. The semiconductor parameter analyzer is used to measure the electrical parameters of LPNP transistor during irradiation. The irradiation defects in LPNP transistors packaged with and without cap are characterized by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Experimental results show that the LPNP transistors packaged with and without cap have similar electrical characteristics. The base current increases with the total dose increasing, while the collector current remains almost constant. The degradation of LPNP transistor packaged with cap is more serious.According to the excess base current varying with base-emitter voltage for the LPNP transistors packaged with and without cap, the degradation of bipolar transistor packaged with cap is more serious under the same irradiation conditions. According to the analysis of DLTS, comparing with bipolar transistor packaged without cap, the signal peak at about 300 K is shifted to the left for the bipolar transistor packaged with cap. These results indicate that the LPNP transistors packaged with cap can generate more interface states during irradiation, which is attributed to a large amount of hydrogen and water vapor out-gassing from the gold plating on the KOVAR, which is released under the thermal stress. In the sealed environment, hydrogen can only diffuse into the device cavity, and is combined with the metal material in the transistor to form metal hydride. Therefore the degradation of transistor is severe under the same irradiation condition.
      通信作者: 李兴冀, lxj0218@hit.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61404038)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Li Xing-Ji, lxj0218@hit.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61404038)
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    Li X J, Geng H B, Lan M J, Yang D Z, He S Y, Liu C M 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 066103Google Scholar

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    Li X J, Geng H B, Lan M J, Yang D Z, He S Y, Liu C M 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 056103Google Scholar

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    Jin J, Wang X Q, Lin S, Song N F 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 094220Google Scholar

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    文林, 李豫东, 郭旗, 任迪远, 汪波, 玛丽娅 2015 物理学报 64 024220Google Scholar

    Wen L, Li Y D, Guo Q, Ren D Y, Wang B, Maria 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 024220Google Scholar

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    Li X J, Lan M J, Liu C M, Yang J Q, Sun Z L, Xiao L Y, He S Y 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 098503Google Scholar

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    Pease R L, Adell P C, Rax B G, Chen X J, Barnaby H J, Holbert K E, Hjalmarson H P 2008 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 55 3169Google Scholar

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    Pease R L, Platteter D G, Dunham G W, Seiler J E, McClure S, Barnaby H J, Chen X J 2007 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 54 2168Google Scholar

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    Pease R L, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M 2009 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 56 1894Google Scholar

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    Pease R L, Dunham G W, Seiler J E, Platteter D G, McClure S S 2007 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 54 1049Google Scholar

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    Chen X J, Barnaby H J, Vermeire B, Holbert K, Wright D, Pease R L, Dunham G, Platteter D G, Seiler J, McClure S, Adell P 2007 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 54 1913Google Scholar

    [16]

    Yusoff W Y W, Jalar A, Othman N K, Rahman I A, Shamsudin R, Hamid M A A 2012 ICSE2012-Proc. 4 604

    [17]

    Rodgers M P, Fleetwood D M, Schrimpf R D, Batyrev I G, Wang S, Pantelides S T 2005 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 52 2642Google Scholar

    [18]

    Hughart D R, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Chen X J, Barnaby H J, Holbert K E, Pease R L, Platteter D G, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2009 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 56 3361Google Scholar

    [19]

    Li X J, Yang J Q, Barnaby H J, Galloway K F, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Liu C M 2017 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 64 1549

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    Barnaby H J, Vermeire B, Campola M J 2015 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 62 1658Google Scholar

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    Fleetwood D M 2013 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 60 1706Google Scholar

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    Witczak S C, Lacoe R C, Shaneyfelt M R, Mayer D C, Schwank J R, Winokur P S 2000 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 47 2281Google Scholar

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    Li X J, Liu C M, Yang J Q, Zhao Y L, Liu G Q 2013 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 60 3924Google Scholar

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    Shaneyfelt M R, Schwank J R, Fleetwood D M, Winokur P S, Hughes K L, Hash G L, Connors M P 1992 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 39 2244Google Scholar

    [25]

    Mrstik B J, Rendell R W 1991 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 38 1101Google Scholar

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    Shockley W, Read W T 1952 Phys. Rev. 87 835Google Scholar

    [27]

    杨剑群, 董磊, 刘超铭, 李兴冀, 徐鹏飞 2018 物理学报 67 168501Google Scholar

    Yang J Q, Dong L, Liu C M, Li X J, Xu P F 2018 Acta Phys. Sin 67 168501Google Scholar

  • 图 1  剂量率100 rad(Si)/s条件下γ辐射吸收剂量对开帽/未开帽处理的LPNP双极型晶体管的 (a) IB 和 (b) ICVEB变化曲线的影响

    Fig. 1.  Variations of (a) IB and (b) IC with base-emitter for the LPNP bipolar transistors with/without cap under dose rate of 100 rad(Si)/s with a 60Co gamma irradiation source.

    图 2  60Co γ射线辐照条件下开帽/未开帽处理的LPNP双极晶体管基极电流变化量与发射结电压的关系

    Fig. 2.  Variations of ΔIB with VEB for the LPNP transistors with/without cap irradiated by 60Co gamma source.

    图 3  60Co γ射线辐照条件下, 有/无进行开帽处理的LPNP双极晶体管深能级瞬态谱图

    Fig. 3.  DLTS spectra of the LPNP transistors packaged with/without cap irradiated by 60Co gamma source.

    图 4  剂量率100 rad/s条件下γ辐射吸收剂量对开帽/未开帽处理的LPNP双极晶体管(a)电流增益变化量的影响和(b)电流增益倒数变化量的影响

    Fig. 4.  (a)The relationship between total dose and current gain for LPNP bipolar transistors with/without cap under dose rate of 100 rad (Si)/s with a 60Co gamma irradiation source. (b) The relationship between total dose and the reciprocal of current gain for LPNP bipolar transistors with/without cap under dose rate of 100 rad (Si)/s with a 60Co gamma irradiation source.

  • [1]

    Zhang L, Zhang Y M, Zhang Y M, Han C and Ma Y J 2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 3490Google Scholar

    [2]

    Li X J, Geng H B, Lan M J, Yang D Z, He S Y, Liu C M 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 066103Google Scholar

    [3]

    Li X J, Geng H B, Lan M J, Yang D Z, He S Y, Liu C M 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 056103Google Scholar

    [4]

    Jin J, Wang X Q, Lin S, Song N F 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 094220Google Scholar

    [5]

    Liu C M, Li X J, Geng H B, Rui E M, Guo L X, Yang J Q 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 104211Google Scholar

    [6]

    文林, 李豫东, 郭旗, 任迪远, 汪波, 玛丽娅 2015 物理学报 64 024220Google Scholar

    Wen L, Li Y D, Guo Q, Ren D Y, Wang B, Maria 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 024220Google Scholar

    [7]

    Johnston A H, Swift G M, Rax B G 1994 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 41 2427Google Scholar

    [8]

    McClure S, Pease R L, Will W, Perry G 1994 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41 2544Google Scholar

    [9]

    Minson E, Sanchez I, Barnaby H J, Pease R L, Platteter D G, Dunham G 2004 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 51 3723Google Scholar

    [10]

    李兴冀, 兰慕杰, 刘超铭, 杨剑群, 孙中亮, 肖立伊, 何世禹 2013 物理学报 62 098503Google Scholar

    Li X J, Lan M J, Liu C M, Yang J Q, Sun Z L, Xiao L Y, He S Y 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 098503Google Scholar

    [11]

    Pease R L, Adell P C, Rax B G, Chen X J, Barnaby H J, Holbert K E, Hjalmarson H P 2008 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 55 3169Google Scholar

    [12]

    Pease R L, Platteter D G, Dunham G W, Seiler J E, McClure S, Barnaby H J, Chen X J 2007 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 54 2168Google Scholar

    [13]

    Pease R L, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M 2009 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 56 1894Google Scholar

    [14]

    Pease R L, Dunham G W, Seiler J E, Platteter D G, McClure S S 2007 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 54 1049Google Scholar

    [15]

    Chen X J, Barnaby H J, Vermeire B, Holbert K, Wright D, Pease R L, Dunham G, Platteter D G, Seiler J, McClure S, Adell P 2007 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 54 1913Google Scholar

    [16]

    Yusoff W Y W, Jalar A, Othman N K, Rahman I A, Shamsudin R, Hamid M A A 2012 ICSE2012-Proc. 4 604

    [17]

    Rodgers M P, Fleetwood D M, Schrimpf R D, Batyrev I G, Wang S, Pantelides S T 2005 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 52 2642Google Scholar

    [18]

    Hughart D R, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Chen X J, Barnaby H J, Holbert K E, Pease R L, Platteter D G, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2009 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 56 3361Google Scholar

    [19]

    Li X J, Yang J Q, Barnaby H J, Galloway K F, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Liu C M 2017 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 64 1549

    [20]

    Barnaby H J, Vermeire B, Campola M J 2015 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 62 1658Google Scholar

    [21]

    Fleetwood D M 2013 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 60 1706Google Scholar

    [22]

    Witczak S C, Lacoe R C, Shaneyfelt M R, Mayer D C, Schwank J R, Winokur P S 2000 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 47 2281Google Scholar

    [23]

    Li X J, Liu C M, Yang J Q, Zhao Y L, Liu G Q 2013 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 60 3924Google Scholar

    [24]

    Shaneyfelt M R, Schwank J R, Fleetwood D M, Winokur P S, Hughes K L, Hash G L, Connors M P 1992 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 39 2244Google Scholar

    [25]

    Mrstik B J, Rendell R W 1991 IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 38 1101Google Scholar

    [26]

    Shockley W, Read W T 1952 Phys. Rev. 87 835Google Scholar

    [27]

    杨剑群, 董磊, 刘超铭, 李兴冀, 徐鹏飞 2018 物理学报 67 168501Google Scholar

    Yang J Q, Dong L, Liu C M, Li X J, Xu P F 2018 Acta Phys. Sin 67 168501Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-07-28
  • 修回日期:  2019-10-14
  • 上网日期:  2019-12-05
  • 刊出日期:  2020-01-05

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