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EAST等离子体Mo V-Mo XVIII极紫外光谱的识别

张文敏 张凌 程云鑫 王正汹 胡爱兰 段艳敏 周天富 刘海庆

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EAST等离子体Mo V-Mo XVIII极紫外光谱的识别

张文敏, 张凌, 程云鑫, 王正汹, 胡爱兰, 段艳敏, 周天富, 刘海庆

Line identification of extreme ultraviolet spectra of Mo V to Mo XVIII in EAST tokamak

Zhang Wen-Min, Zhang Ling, Cheng Yun-Xin, Wang Zheng-Xiong, Hu Ai-Lan, Duan Yan-Min, Zhou Tian-Fu, Liu Hai-Qing
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  • 磁约束聚变等离子体中高Z杂质的存在给等离子体的约束状态带来不同程度的影响. EAST装置第一壁是钼瓦, 不可避免地, 等离子体与壁相互作用会使钼进入等离子体成为高Z杂质. 本文利用EAST托卡马克装置快速极紫外杂质谱仪系统实现了对5—500 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm)波段范围内杂质线光谱进行同时监测. 结合EAST等离子体低、中Z杂质的特征谱线对波长进行原位标定, 基于NIST数据库和已有实验数据进行对比, 并利用归一化谱线强度随时间演化行为, 对较低电子温度(Te0 = 1.5 keV)等离子体中5—485 Å波段范围内由瞬态钼杂质溅射产生的钼光谱进行了系统性识别. 在15—30 Å和65—95 Å波段范围观测到分别由电离态Mo19+-Mo24+(Mo XX-Mo XXV), Mo16+-Mo29+(Mo XVII-Mo XXX)组成的未分辨跃迁系. 而且在EAST上观测并识别出27—60 Å和120—485 Å波段范围内低价钼离子(Mo4+-Mo17+)的多条谱线(Mo V-Mo XVIII). 这些谱线包含多条强度较强且独立的禁戒线和共振线, 例如Mo XII(329.414 Å, 336.639 Å, 381.125 Å), Mo XIII (340.909 Å, 352.994 Å), Mo XIV(373.647 Å, 423.576 Å), Mo XV(50.448 Å, 57.927 Å, 58.832 Å); 还观测到27—32 Å波段范围内6条新的钼谱线, 即(27.21 ± 0.01) Å, (27.37 ± 0.01) Å, (28.99 ± 0.01) Å, (30.81 ± 0.01) Å, (31.54 ± 0.01) Å, (31.83 ± 0.01) Å, 并推断这6条谱线可能是Mo XV-Mo XVIII谱线. 同时确定了12条用于杂质输运物理研究的谱线. 这些谱线的识别不仅丰富了钼原子数据库, 还为EAST托卡马克开展高Z杂质行为以及输运物理的研究提供了坚实基础.
    The presence of high-Z impurities in magnetically confined fusion devices has different influences on the confinement property of the plasma due to the high cooling rate of high-Z impurities. The first wall of EAST is equipped with molybdenum tiles, molybdenum particles sputtered from inevitable plasma-wall interaction enter into the plasma and become high-Z impurity. In this paper, four fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers, a system which is upgraded in the EAST 2021 campaign, are used to monitor the line emission from impurity ions in the 5–500 Å wavelength range simultaneously. The in-situ wavelength calibration is carried out accurately using several well-known emission lines of low- and medium-Z impurity ions. The observed spectral lines are carefully identified based on the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) database, previously published experimental data and the time evolution of the normalized line intensity of emission lines from impurity ions. At the lower electron temperature (Te0 = 1.5 keV), the EUV spectra emitted from molybdenum ions in the range of 5–485 Å are systematically identified in EAST discharges accompanied with spontaneous sputtering events. As a result, two unresolved transition arrays of molybdenum spectra composed of Mo19+-Mo24+ (Mo XX-Mo XXV) and Mo16+-Mo29+ (Mo XVII-Mo XXX) are observed in the ranges of 15–30 Å and 65–95 Å. In addition, several spectral lines of lower molybdenum ions of Mo4+-Mo17+ (Mo V-Mo XVIII) in the ranges of 27–60 Å and 120–485 Å are observed and identified on EAST for the first time, including a few strong and isolated forbidden and resonant lines, e.g. Mo XII at 329.414 Å, 336.639 Å and 381.125 Å, Mo XIII at 340.909 Å and 352.994 Å, Mo XIV at 373.647 Å and 423.576 Å, Mo XV at 50.448 Å, 57.927 Å and 58.832 Å. Six spectral lines are newly observed in the range of 27–32 Å, i.e. (27.21 ± 0.01) Å, (27.37 ± 0.01) Å, (28.99 ± 0.01) Å, (30.81 ± 0.01) Å, (31.54 ± 0.01) Å and (31.83 ± 0.01) Å, which may be Mo XV-Mo XVIII spectral lines. As a result, twelve strong and isolated spectral lines are chosen in routine observation for impurity transport physical study. The identification of these spectral lines not only enriches the molybdenum atom database, but also provides a solid experimental data base for magnetically confined devices to study the behavior and transport in core and edge plasmas of high-Z impurity.
      通信作者: 张凌, zhangling@ipp.ac.cn ; 王正汹, zxwang@dlut.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家磁约束核聚变能发展研究专项(批准号: 2022YFE03180400)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11925501)和国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2018YFE0311100, 2019YFE030403)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Zhang Ling, zhangling@ipp.ac.cn ; Wang Zheng-Xiong, zxwang@dlut.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National MCF Energy R&D Program, China (Grant No. 2022YFE03180400 ), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11925501), and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2018YFE0311100, 2019YFE030403)
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  • 图 1  极紫外光谱仪的光路设计 (a) 短波段快速EUV谱仪; (b) 长波段快速EUV谱仪

    Fig. 1.  Optical layout of fast-time-response EUV spectrometer: (a) EUV_Short; (b) EUV_Long_a, EUV_Long_b, EUV_Long_c.

    图 2  EAST极向截面、最外磁面(红色线)以及4套快速极紫外光谱仪观测弦

    Fig. 2.  EAST poloidal cross section and the last closed magnetic surface (red line), and lines of sight of four fast-time-response EUV spectrometers on EAST.

    图 3  发生钼杂质溅射的典型波形图 (a) 等离子体电流Ip; (b) 低杂波、离子回旋和中性束加热功率(PLHW, PICRF, PNBI); (c) 芯部弦平均电子密度ne; (d) 归一化的Mo V 258.069 Å和Mo XXIV 70.726 Å线辐射强度(IMo V, IMo XXIV); (e) 归一化的边界辐射和芯部辐射强度(Edge IAXUV, Core IAXUV)

    Fig. 3.  Typical waveform of discharge with molybdenum impurity sputtering: (a) plasma current, Ip; (b) heating power of low hybrid wave, PLHW, ion cyclotron range of frequency heating, PICRF, and neutral beam injection, PNBI; (c) central line-averaged electron density, ne; (d) normalized intensities of Mo V at 258.069 Å, IMo V, and Mo XXIV at 70.726 Å, IMo XXIV; (e) normalized radiation intensities observed by fast AXUV system along an edge and central chord, Edge IAXUV, and Core IAXUV, respectively.

    图 4  EAST #101700放电中钼杂质爆发前后辐射分布 (a) 9.1—9.9 s的时间演化; (b) t = 9.172 s, 9.480 s, 9.497 s 3个时刻

    Fig. 4.  Radiation profiles before and after the molybdenum impurity burst in EAST #101700 discharge: (a) Time evolutions during 9.1–9.9 s; (b) at three timings of t = 9.172 s, 9.480 s and 9.497 s.

    图 5  EAST #101700放电钼杂质爆发前325 ms(灰色线, t = 9.172 s)和爆发期间(蓝色线, t = 9.497 s)观测5—485 Å波段范围的EUV光谱 (a) 5—45 Å; (b) 45—165 Å; (c) 165—285 Å; (d) 285—485 Å

    Fig. 5.  EUV spectra observed 325 ms before (grey lines, t = 9.172 s) and during (blue lines, t = 9.497 s) the molybdenum burst at the wavelength ranges of 5–485 Å in EAST discharge #101700: (a) 5–45 Å; (b) 45–165 Å; (c) 165–285 Å; (d) 285–485 Å.

    图 6  EAST #101700放电中四条钼离子归一化谱线强度随时间的演化 (a) Mo VII 235.694 Å; (b) Mo XV 57.928 Å, 2nd Mo XV 115.856 Å; (c) Mo XXIV 70.726 Å

    Fig. 6.  Time evolutions of the four molybdenum ions normalized line emission intensities in EAST #101700 discharge: (a) Mo VII at 235.694 Å; (b) Mo XV at 57.928 Å and 2nd Mo XV at 115.856 Å; (c) Mo XXIV at 70.726 Å.

    表 1  在EUV波段识别的钼谱线

    Table 1.  Identified molybdenum lines in EUV range.

    谱线离子电离能/eV波长/Å跃迁能级
    实验值参考值
    Mo VMo4+54.42258.09 ± 0.03258.0694p54d3 3 → 4p64d2 1D2
    324.98 ± 0.02324.9794p64d5f 34 → 4p64d2 3F4
    327.13 ± 0.01327.1674p54d3 3 → 4p64d2 3P2
    Mo VIMo5+68.83227.75 ± 0.04227.8014p5(2P°)4d(3F)5s 25/2→4p64d 2D5/2
    229.20 ± 0.04229.2624p66f 25/2 →4p64d 2D3/2
    Mo VIIMo6+125.64151.85 ± 0.04151.7474s24p5(23/2)5d 2[1/2] °1 → 4s24p6 1S0
    235.66 ± 0.05235.6944s24p5(23/2)5f 2[3/2]1 → 4s24p5(21/2)4d 2[3/2]°2
    Mo VIIIMo7+143.6133.18 ± 0.03133.1684s24p4(3P)5d 2P3/2→4s24p5 23/2
    134.34 ± 0.03134.3624s24p4(3P)5d 4F5/2→4s24p5 23/2
    136.83 ± 0.03136.7824s24p4(3P)5d 2D3/2→4s24p5 23/2
    Mo IXMo8+164.12132.03 ± 0.03132.0774s24p3(2P°)5d 31→4s24p4 1S0
    158.53 ± 0.03158.6414s24p3(21/2)5s (1/2, 1/2)°1→4s24p4 3P2
    176.67 ± 0.04176.6824s24p3(23/2)5s (3/2, 1/2)°2→4s24p4 1D2
    231.90 ± 0.05231.9914s24p3(2D°)4d 13→4s24p4 1D2
    237.76 ± 0.05237.8434s24p3(2D°)4d 12→4s24p4 1D2
    Mo XMo9+186.3152.54 ± 0.04152.6834s24p2(3P)5s 4P3/2 →4s24p3 43/2
    157.65 ± 0.04157.6244s24p2(3P)5s 2P3/2 →4s24p3 25/2
    159.07 ± 0.04159.0494s24p2(3P)5s 4P5/2 →4s24p3 25/2
    159.42 ± 0.04159.2194s24p2(3P)5s 4P3/2 →4s24p3 23/2
    231.07 ± 0.04231.1104s24p2(1D)4d 2F7/2 →4s24p3 25/2
    239.03 ± 0.06239.0174s24p2(1S)4d 2D5/2 →4s24p3 23/2
    243.05 ± 0.06243.0714s24p2(1D)4d 2D3/2→4s24p3 25/2
    Mo XIMo10+209.3146.65 ± 0.04146.6414s24p (21/2)5s (1/2, 1/2)°1→4s24p2 3P2
    322.12 ± 0.04322.1584s4p3 11 → 4s24p2 1D2
    Mo XIIMo11+230.28131.37 ± 0.03131.3944s25s 2S1/2→4s24p 21/2
    250.09 ± 0.06250.1124s24d 2D5/2→4s24p 23/2
    329.53 ± 0.01329.4144s4p2 2P3/2→4s24p 23/2
    336.51 ± 0.01336.6394s4p2 2P1/2→4s24p 23/2
    381.13 ± 0.06381.1254s4p2 2D3/2→4s24p 21/2
    Mo XIIIMo12+279.153.56 ± 0.0253.5513d94s24p 31→3d104s2 1S0
    54.12 ± 0.0254.1013d94s24p 11→3d104s2 1S0
    340.88 ± 0.01340.9093d104s4p 11→3d104s2 1S0
    352.87 ± 0.03352.9943d104p2 3P1→3d104s4p 30
    Mo XIVMo13+302.651.98 ± 0.0252.0003d9(2D)4p2(3P) 2P1/2→3d104p 23/2
    52.77 ± 0.0252.7533d9(2D)4s4p (3P°) 23/2→3d104s 2S1/2
    121.68 ± 0.02121.6473d105s 2S1/2→3d104p 23/2
    241.78 ± 0.06241.6093d104d 2D3/2→3d104p 21/2
    373.55 ± 0.05373.6473d104p 23/2→3d104s 2S1/2
    423.57 ± 0.07423.5763d104p 21/2→3d104s 2S1/2
    Mo XVMo14+54429.48 ± 0.0129.4583d95f 11→3d10 1S0
    29.81 ± 0.0129.7743d95f 31→3d10 1S0
    35.39 ± 0.0135.3683d94f 11→3d10 1S0
    50.43 ± 0.0250.4483d9(2D5/2)4p (5/2, 3/2)°1→3d10 1S0
    58.04 ± 0.0457.9273d9(2D3/2)4s (3/2, 1/2) 2→3d10 1S0
    58.86 ± 0.0458.8323d9(2D5/2)4s (5/2, 1/2) 2→3d10 1S0
    347.47 ± 0.05347.3393d9(2D5/2)4p (5/2, 3/2)°3→3d9(2D5/2)4s (5/2, 1/2)3
    365.77 ± 0.04365.9243d9(2D5/2)4p (5/2, 3/2)4→3d9(2D5/2)4s (5/2, 1/2)3
    Mo XVIMo15+59132.92 ± 0.0532.9163p63d8(1G4)4f 2[1]°3/2→3p63d9 2D5/2
    34.03 ± 0.0133.9923p63d8(3F2)4f 2[1]°3/2→3p63d9 2D3/2
    54.46 ± 0.0354.3483p63d8(3F4)4s (4, 1/2) 9/2→3p63d9 2D5/2
    Mo XVIIIMo17+70238.81 ± 0.0138.700a3d64p→3d7
    a 数据来源于文献[18], 其他数据来源于NIST数据库[25], 粗体表示可用于杂质诊断的谱线.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-24
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-29
  • 上网日期:  2022-03-04
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-05

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