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非厄密电磁超表面研究进展

范辉颖 罗杰

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非厄密电磁超表面研究进展

范辉颖, 罗杰

Research progress of non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces

Fan Hui-Ying, Luo Jie
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  • 电磁超表面是一类由单层或多层亚波长人工微结构组成的平面电磁材料, 可以在亚波长尺度下实现对电磁波偏振、振幅和相位的有效调控. 然而, 将电磁波限制在深亚波长尺度的代价通常是大的损耗, 如辐射损耗、欧姆损耗. 有趣的是, 非厄米物理提供了一种将损耗这一不利因素转变为超表面设计中一个新自由度的新方法, 为扩展超表面功能提供了新方向. 近些年, 非厄米电磁超表面上的一些非常规物理效应引起了研究人员的广泛关注. 本文从完美吸收、奇异点与表面波三个方面对非厄米电磁超表面研究进行了综述, 并对该领域面临的挑战和发展前景进行了展望.
    Electromagnetic metasurface, as a type of planar electromagnetic material consisting of single-layer or multilayer subwavelength artificial micro-structure, can efficiently control the polarization, amplitude and phase of electromagnetic wave on a subwavelength scale. However, confining electromagnetic waves to a deep-subwavelength scale generally is at the cost of a large loss, such as radiation loss, Ohmic loss. Interestingly, non-Hermitian physics provides us a new way to transform the disadvantage of loss into a new degree of freedom in metasurface design, paving the way to expanding the functionalities of metasurfaces. In recent years, the extraordinary effects in the non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces have attracted a lot of attention. In this review, we discuss the perfect absorption, exceptional points and surfaces waves of non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces, and point out the challenges and potentials in this field.
      通信作者: 罗杰, luojie@suda.edu.cn
      Corresponding author: Luo Jie, luojie@suda.edu.cn
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  • 图 1  非厄米电磁超表面示意图

    Fig. 1.  Illustration of non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces.

    图 2  谐振型完美吸波超表面 (a) 左: 超表面单元结构示意图; 右: 吸波性能的仿真结果[111]; (b) 光学吸波超表面单元示意图, 顶部为金属矩形阵列[112]; (c) 光学吸波超表面单元示意图, 顶部为金属圆盘阵列[113]; (d) 基于耦合模理论的等效单通道谐振腔模型[114]; (e) 复合超表面结构单元, 不同尺寸的谐振单元在横向上排布[115]; (f) 复合超表面结构单元, 不同尺寸的谐振单元在纵向上排布[116]; (g) 拥有三个谐振频点的分形结构单元[119]

    Fig. 2.  Resonant absorbing metasurfaces. (a) Left: Illustration of the metasurface unit cell; Right: Simulated absorption spectrum[111]. (b) An optical absorbing metasurface unit cell with an array of metallic disks on the top[112]. (c) An optical absorbing metasurface unit cell with an array of rectangular metallic particles on the top[113]. (d) The equivalent single-port resonator model based on coupled mode theory[114]. (e) Composite metasurface unit cell consisting of horizontally arranged resonators of different sizes[115]. (f) Composite metasurface unit cell consisting of vertically arranged resonators of different sizes[116]. (g) Fractal unit cell exhibiting three resonant frequencies[119].

    图 3  非谐振型超宽频完美吸波超表面 (a) 左: 布儒斯特超表面示意图; 中: 原理示意图; 右: 吸波性能的仿真结果[40]; (b) 超宽频相干完美吸收的原理示意图[140]; (c) 超宽频相干完美吸收的测量装置示意图, 以及实验测得的反射率和吸收率与频率的关系[139]

    Fig. 3.  Non-resonant ultra-broadband absorbing metasurfaces. (a) Left: Illustration of the Brewster metasurface; Middle: The underlying physics; Right: Simulated absorption spectrum[40]. (b) Illustration of ultra-broadband coherent perfect absorption[140]. (c) Illustration of the experimental setup, and measured reflectance and absorptance as the function of frequency[139].

    图 4  非厄米电磁超表面的耦合理论模型 (a) 左: 两个耦合谐振单元组成的二能级系统; 右: 本征值的演化; (b) 左: 两个具有正交激励方向的偶极子组成的二能级系统; 右:本征值的演化

    Fig. 4.  Coupling model of non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces. (a) Left: A generic two-level system consisting of two coupled resonators; Right: The evolution of its eigenvalues. (b) Left: A generic two-level system consisting of two perpendicular dipoles; Right: The evolution of its eigenvalues.

    图 5  非厄米电磁超表面 (a) 左: 由开口方向垂直的开口环谐振器阵列构成的非厄米超表面; 右: 圆偏振入射波在超表面中的透射率[105]; (b) 左: 非厄米超表面单个单元的几何结构; 右: 本征态在参数空间中围绕奇异点的演化[156]

    Fig. 5.  Non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces. (a) Left: A non-Hermitian metasurfaces consisting of an array of orthogonally oriented split ring resonators; Right: The transmission of circularly polarized waves on this metasurface[105]. (b) Left: Schematic of the metasurface unit cell; Right: The evolution of the eigenstates in parameter space as the EP is encircled[156].

    图 6  (a) 非厄米电磁超表面的散射理论模型; (b): 本征值的演化

    Fig. 6.  (a) Scattering model of non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces; (b) the evolution of eigenvalues.

    图 7  PT对称电磁超表面中的奇异点及单向无反射特性 (a) 左: 由一对平衡损耗与增益的超表面构成的PT对称超表面系统示意图; 右: 奇异点诱导的单向无反射负折射现象[172]; (b) 奇异点诱导的单向无反射成像[173]; (c) 左: 当超表面之间为零折射率介质时, 系统中的两类相变奇异点趋于合并; 右: 合并奇异点诱导的对杂质免疫的完美传输效应[176]

    Fig. 7.  EPs and unidirectional reflectionless properties of PT-symmetric electromagnetic metasurfaces. (a) Left: Illustration of a PT-symmetric metasurface system composed of a pair of metasurfaces with balanced loss and gain; Right: EP-induced unidirectional reflectionless negative refraction[172]. (b) EP-induced unidirectional reflectionless imaging[173]. (c) Left: Two classes of EPs tend to coalesce into one when the material between the two metasurface is an zero-index medium; Right: Coalesced EP-induced impurity-immune perfect wave transmission[176].

    图 8  非厄米超表面中奇异点在传感方面的应用 (a) 左: Diabolic点(DP)的频率分裂量与微扰强度$\varepsilon $的关系; 右: 奇异点的频率分裂量与微扰强度$\varepsilon $的关系[94]; (b) 左: 由上下两层在横向上错位的金条阵列组成的等离激元超表面; 右: 在奇异点下频率分裂量随微扰强度$\varepsilon $的变化[198]

    Fig. 8.  Sensing applications of EPs in non-Hermitian metasurfaces. (a) Left: Frequency splitting of DP versus the perturbation strength$\varepsilon $; Right: Frequency splitting of EP versus the perturbation strength $\varepsilon $[94]. (b) Left: A plasmonic metasurface composed of two layers of gold bars with a lateral shift; Right: The frequency splitting of EP versus the perturbation strength $\varepsilon $ [198].

    图 9  非厄米超表面中奇异点在相位操控上的应用 (a) 左: 超表面结构单元示意图; 右: 实验样品照片图[163]; (b) 实验测得的交叉偏振衍射图样随垂直狭槽的间距的变化[163]

    Fig. 9.  Phase control with EPs in non-Hermitian metasurfaces. (a) Left: illustration of the metasurface unit cell. Right: The photograph of the fricated sample[163]. (b) Experimental cross-polarization diffraction patterns for different separation distance between orthogonal slots[163].

    图 10  非厄米电磁超表面上的奇异表面波 (a) 左: 各向异性非厄米超表面上的自准直表面等离激元波; 右: 基于的石墨烯的设计的各向异性非厄米超表面[108]; (b) 左: PT对称超表面上的线波示意图; 右: 线波的仿真结果[109]

    Fig. 10.  Extraordinary surface waves on non-Hermitian electromagnetic metasurfaces. (a) Left: Surface plasmon canalization on an anisotropic non-Hermitian metasurface; Right: The graphene-based anisotropic non-Hermitian metasurface[108]. (b) Left: Line waves on a PT-symmetric metasurface. Right: The simulation results[109].

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  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-29
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-06
  • 上网日期:  2022-10-29
  • 刊出日期:  2022-12-24

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