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磁声耦合: 物理、材料与器件

陈崇 马铭远 潘峰 宋成

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磁声耦合: 物理、材料与器件

陈崇, 马铭远, 潘峰, 宋成

Magneto-acoustic coupling: Physics, materials, and devices

Chen Chong, Ma Ming-Yuan, Pan Feng, Song Cheng
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  • 固体中的声波有两种传播方式: 一种是声体波, 以纵波或横波的形式在固体内部传播; 另一种是声表面波, 在固体表面产生并沿着表面传播. 声波射频技术利用这些声波来截取和处理信号, 尤其体现在快速发展的射频滤波器技术中. 声学滤波器因其体积小、成本低和性能稳定等多方面的优势, 在移动通信等领域得到了广泛应用. 受益于成熟的制造工艺和确定的共振频率, 声波已逐渐成为操控磁性和自旋的有力手段, 这一领域正朝着小型化、超快和节能的自旋电子学器件应用迈进. 将磁性材料集成到声学射频器件, 也开辟了对声学器件调控方法和性能提升的新思路. 本综述首先梳理了各种磁声耦合的物理机制, 并在此基础上系统介绍了声控磁化动力学、磁化翻转、磁畴和磁性斯格明子产生及运动、自旋流产生等一系列磁性和自旋现象. 同时也讨论了声控磁的逆过程——磁控声波的研究进展, 包括声波参数的磁调控和声波的非互易传播, 以及基于此开发的新型磁声器件, 如磁传感器、磁电天线、可调谐滤波器等. 最后展望了磁声耦合未来可能的研究方向和潜在的应用前景.
    Acoustic wave in solid has two modes of propagation: the bulk acoustic wave (BAW), which propagates inside solid in the form of longitudinal or transverse wave, and the surface acoustic wave (SAW), which is generated on the surface of solid and propagates along the surface. In acoustic radio frequency (RF) technologies acoustic waves are used to intercept and process RF signals, which are typified by the rapidly developing RF filter technology. Acoustic filter has the advantages of small size, low cost, steady performance and simple fabrication, and is widely used in mobile communication and other fields. Due to the mature fabrication process and well-defined resonance frequency of acoustic device, acoustic wave has become an extremely intriguing way to manipulate magnetism and spin current, with the goal of pursuing miniaturized, ultra-fast, and energy-efficient spintronic device applications. The integration of magnetic materials into acoustic RF device also provides a new way of thinking about the methods of acoustic device modulation and performance enhancement. This review first summarizes various physical mechanisms of magneto-acoustic coupling, and then based on these mechanisms, a variety of magnetic and spin phenomena such as acoustically controlled magnetization dynamics, magnetization switching, magnetic domain wall and magnetic skyrmions generation and motion, and spin current generation are systematically introduced. In addition, the research progress of magnetic control of acoustic wave, the inverse process of acoustic control of magnetism, is discussed, including the magnetic modulation of acoustic wave parameters and nonreciprocal propagation of acoustic waves, as well as new magneto-acoustic devices developed based on this, such as SAW-based magnetic field sensors, magneto-electric antennas, and tunable filters. Finally, the possible research objectives and applications of magneto-acoustic coupling in the future are prospected. In summary, the field of magneto-acoustic coupling is still in a stage of rapid development, and a series of groundbreaking breakthroughs has been made in the last decades, and the major advances are summarized in this field. The field of magneto-acoustic coupling is expected to make further significant breakthroughs, and we hope that this review will further promote the researches of physical phenomena of the coupling between magnetism and acoustic wave, spin and lattice, and potential device applications as well.
      通信作者: 宋成, songcheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2022YFA1402603)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 52225106, 12241404)和北京市自然科学基金(批准号: JQ20010)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Song Cheng, songcheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2022YFA1402603), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 52225106, 12241404), and the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant No. JQ20010).
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  • 图 1  磁声耦合的器件构型 (a) 声表面波器件; (b) 声体波器件

    Fig. 1.  Schematic illustration of magneto-acoustic coupling devices: (a) Surface acoustic wave device; (b) bulk acoustic wave devices.

    图 2  磁声耦合的物理机制 (a) 磁弹耦合; (b) 磁电耦合; (c) 磁-旋转耦合; (d) 自旋-旋转耦合; (e) 旋磁耦合[52]; (f) 磁子-声子耦合

    Fig. 2.  Physical mechanism of magneto-acoustic coupling: (a) Magneto-elastic coupling; (b) magnetoelectric coupling; (c) magneto-rotation coupling; (d) spin-rotation coupling; (e) gyromagnetic coupling[52]; (f) magnon-phonon coupling.

    图 3  声波驱动的磁化动力学 (a) 驱动原理, 磁场角度和声波频率依赖性[1]; (b) 声波模式依赖性[6,7]; (c) 旋磁耦合和磁弹耦合驱动的对比[8]

    Fig. 3.  Magnetization dynamics driven by acoustic waves: (a) Driven mechanism, field angle and SWA frequency dependences[1]; (b) SAW mode dependence[6,7]; (c) comparison between gyromagnetic coupling and magneto-elastic coupling[8].

    图 4  声波驱动磁化动力学的探测手段 (a) 磁光方法和阻尼因子表征[9]; (b) NV色心[10]; (c) 布里渊光散射[11]; (d) X射线磁圆二色性谱-光发射电子显微镜[12]; (e) 基于各向异性磁电阻整流效应的直流电学探测[13]

    Fig. 4.  Detection of SAW-driven magnetization dynamics: (a) Magneto-optic method and characterization of damping factor[9]; (b) NV center[10]; (c) microfocused Brillouin light scattering[11]; (d) X-ray magnetic circular dichroism-photoemission electron microscopy[12]; (e) direct current electrical detection by anisotropic magnetoresistance rectification effect[13].

    图 5  声波辅助的磁化翻转 (a) SAW辅助翻转的器件示意图[66]; (b), (c) 辅助翻转原理和聚焦SAW实现微区控制[14]; (d) 无磁场辅助下SAW引起的翻转[16]; (e) SAW辅助的自旋转移力矩翻转[18]; (f) SAW辅助的自旋轨道力矩翻转[17]

    Fig. 5.  Acoustic wave-assisted magnetization switching: (a) Schematic representation of the device used in SAW-assisted magnetization switching[66]; (b), (c) mechanism of switching and focused SAW for small spot writing[14]; (d) field-free switching induced by SAW[16]; (e) SAW-assisted spin-transfer-torque switching[18]; (f) SAW-assisted spin-orbit-torque switching[17].

    图 6  声波驱动的畴壁运动 (a) 微磁学模拟SAW在纳米线中驱动畴壁运动[19]; (b) Co/Pt多层膜中的实验结果[20]; (c) 热效应和磁弹耦合对畴壁运动贡献的区分[21]

    Fig. 6.  SAW-driven magnetic domain wall motion: (a) SAW-driven domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires by micromagnetic simulations[19]; (b) experiments in Co/Pt multilayers[20]; (c) separation of heating and magnetoelastic coupling effects in SAW-driven domain wall motion[21].

    图 7  声波驱动的斯格明子产生及运动 (a), (b) SAW辅助的斯格明子产生[22]; (c)—(f) SAW诱导的斯格明子有序产生和运动, 以及铁磁体中斯格明子霍尔效应的抑制[23]

    Fig. 7.  SAW-driven magnetic skyrmion creation and motion: (a), (b) SAW-driven magnetic skyrmion creation[22]; (c)–(f) ordered creation and motion of skyrmions with SAW, and suppression of skyrmion Hall effect in ferromagnets[23].

    图 8  声波产生自旋流 (a), (b) 声自旋泵浦[24]; (c) 声学谐振腔增强声自旋泵浦[26]; (d) 瑞利波通过自旋-旋转耦合产生自旋流[27]; (e) 水平剪切波通过自旋-旋转耦合产生自旋流[28]

    Fig. 8.  Generation of spin current by SAW: (a), (b) Acoustic spin pumping[24]; (c) enhancement of acoustic spin pump by the acoustic cavity[26]; (d) Rayleigh wave generates spin current by spin-rotation coupling[27]; (e) shear horizontal wave generates spin current by spin-rotation coupling[28].

    图 9  磁声耦合诱导的声波非互易传播 (a), (b) 磁弹耦合诱导的非互易[33]; (c), (d) 磁-旋转耦合诱导的非互易[32]; (e) 层间DMI诱导的非互易[33]; (f) 偶极耦合的铁磁多层膜中的非互易[35]; (g) RKKY耦合的铁磁多层膜中的非互易[38]

    Fig. 9.  Nonreciprocal SAW propagation induced by magneto-acoustic coupling: (a), (b) Nonreciprocity via magneto-elastic coupling[33]; (c), (d) nonreciprocity via magneto-rotation coupling[32]; (e) nonreciprocity via DMI[33]; (f) nonreciprocity in ferromagnetic multilayers mediated by dipolar coupling[35]; (g) nonreciprocity in ferromagnetic multilayers mediated by RKKY coupling[38].

    图 10  基于SAW的磁场传感器 (a) ΔE 效应原理示意图[107]; (b) 基于SAW谐振器的磁场传感器 [40]; (c) 不同方向的SRF结果; (d) 基于SAW延迟线的磁场传感器[39]; (e) 应用磁直流偏置场的磁场灵敏度; (f) 在距离载波信号的40 kHz的频率范围内的探测极限(148 MHz)[39]

    Fig. 10.  SAW-based magnetic field sensors: (a) Schematic diagram of ΔE effect [107]; (b) magnetic sensor based on SAW resonator[40]; (c) SRF results in different directions; (d) magnetic sensor based on SAW delay line[39]; (e) magnetic sensitivity by applying DC magnetic bias fields; (f) limit of detection (LOD) in the frequency range of 40 kHz from the carrier signal (148 MHz)[39].

    图 11  不同结构的磁电天线示意图, 包括NPR (a), FBAR (b)和SMR (c); (d) NPR结构磁电耦合系数随外加磁场的变化[41]; (e) FBAR天线的S参数[41]; (f) SMR天线的S参数[42]

    Fig. 11.  Schematic diagram of magnetoelectric antennas with different structures, including NPR (a), FBAR (b), SMR (c); (d) variation of magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of NPR structure with applied magnetic field[41]; (e) S parameters of FBAR antenna[41]; (f) S parameters of SMR antenna[42].

    图 12  (a) 带有两个耦合的环形FBAR谐振器的磁电滤波器的原理图[43]; (b) 零偏置场下磁电滤波器的S参数; (c) 谐振频率随外加直流磁场的函数变化

    Fig. 12.  (a) Schematic diagram of the structure of an magnetoelectric filter with two coupled toroidal FBAR resonators[43]; (b) S parameters of the magnetoelectric filter in the zero-bias field; (c) resonant frequency as a function of the applied DC magnetic field.

    表 1  磁声耦合的重要研究进展

    Table 1.  Important research progress in magneto-acoustic coupling.

    研究内容 材料体系 耦合机制 中心频率 f/GHz 进展
    声控磁化
    动力学
    Ni[1] 磁弹耦合 2.24 首次实验观测
    Ni[5] 1.725 纵漏波驱动
    Ni[6] 3.47 水平剪切波驱动, 具有不同的角度依赖性
    Ni19Fe81[8] 旋磁耦合 1.3—2.1 旋磁耦合驱动
    Ni[9] 磁弹耦合 7.8—9.8 光学激发和探测, 表征阻尼因子
    Ni/Co[10] 1.429 NV色心探测
    Ni[11] 3.56 BLS成像
    Ni[12] 0.1—2.5 XMCD-PEEM成像
    Ni[13] 1.97—3.23 直流电学探测
    声控磁
    化翻转
    FeGa[14] 磁弹耦合(非共振) 0.158 降低矫顽力
    (Ga, Mn)(As, P)[15] 0.549 矫顽力降低60%
    (Ga, Mn)As[16] 0.99 无场翻转
    Pt/Co/Ta[17] 0.076 SAW辅助SOT翻转, 临界翻转电流密度降低
    隧道结[18] 磁弹耦合 11—18 模拟SAW辅助STT翻转
    声控畴
    壁运动
    Fe70Ga18B12[19] 磁弹耦合(非共振) 4.23 微磁学模拟, 畴壁运动速度上限50 m/s
    [Co/Pt]多层膜[20] 0.097 SAW驻波使畴壁运动速度提高1个量级
    Pt/Co/Ta[21] 0.048 区分热效应和磁弹耦合对畴壁运动的贡献
    声控斯
    格明子
    Pt/Co/Ir[22] 磁弹耦合(非共振) 0.23, 0.40 斯格明子的产生
    [Co/Pd]多层膜[23] 0.366 纵漏波驱动斯格明子的有序产生和运动
    声波产生
    自旋流
    Co/Pt[24] 磁弹耦合 1.548 声自旋泵浦, 逆自旋霍尔效应探测
    Ni/Cu(Ag)/Bi2O3[25] 声自旋泵浦, 逆Edelstein效应探测
    Ni/Cu/Bi2O3[26] 2.86 谐振腔增强声自旋泵浦, 自旋流产生能力提高3倍
    Ni81Fe19/Cu[27] 自旋-旋转耦合 1.59 瑞利波产生纯自旋流(σy)
    Ni81Fe19/Cu[28] 0.666 水平剪切波产生纯自旋流(σxσz)
    声波的非
    互易传播
    Ni[29] 磁弹耦合 2.24 切应变与正应变耦合, 隔离度0.05 dB/mm
    Fe3Si[30] 3.455 切应变与正应变耦合, 隔离度0.8 dB/mm
    Ni/Si[31] 1.85 切应变与正应变耦合, 非互易性可调,
    隔离度0.03 dB/mm
    Ta/CoFeB/MgO[32] 磁-旋转耦合 6.1 旋转应变与正应变耦合, 非互易性100%
    CoFeB/Pt[33] 磁弹耦合 6.77 界面DMI诱导的非互易, 隔离度27.9 dB/mm
    FeGaB/Al2O3/FeGaB[34] 1.435 偶极耦合诱导的非互易, 隔离度22 dB/mm
    Co40Fe40B20/Au/Ni81Fe19[35] 6.87 偶极耦合诱导的非互易, 隔离度74 dB/mm
    CoFeB/Ru/CoFeB[36] 1.4 RKKY耦合诱导的非互易, 隔离度37 dB/mm
    Pt/Co/Ru/Co/Pt[37] 6.77 RKKY耦合和DMI诱导的非互易, 隔离度3 dB/mm
    CoFeB/Ru/CoFeB[38] 5.08 RKKY耦合诱导的非互易, 隔离度250 dB/mm
    磁传感器 FeCoSiB[39] 磁电耦合 0.148 SAW延迟线结构激发勒夫波, 10 Hz下
    70 pT/Hz1/2的探测极限
    FeCoSiB[40] 0.477 SAW谐振器结构激发勒夫波, 灵敏度630.4 kHz/Oe
    磁电天线 AlN/FeGaB[41] 磁电耦合 2.53 FBAR结构, 首次实验验证可行性,
    增益 –18 dBi, 辐射效率0.4%
    ZnO/FeGaB[42] 1.75 SMR结构, 增益–18.8 dBi, 功率耐受性30.4 dBm
    可调谐
    滤波器
    AlN/FeGaB[43] 磁电耦合 0.093 磁场频率可调性50 Hz/μT, 电场频率可调性2.3 kHz/V
    注: “—”表示未报道, σi (i = x, y, z)表示i方向极化的自旋流.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-04
  • 修回日期:  2024-01-01
  • 上网日期:  2024-01-16
  • 刊出日期:  2024-03-05

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