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532 nm响应增强的AlGaAs光电阴极

王东智 张益军 李诗曼 童泽昊 唐嵩 石峰 焦岗成 程宏昌 富容国 钱芸生 曾玉刚

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532 nm响应增强的AlGaAs光电阴极

王东智, 张益军, 李诗曼, 童泽昊, 唐嵩, 石峰, 焦岗成, 程宏昌, 富容国, 钱芸生, 曾玉刚

AlGaAs photocathode with enhanced response at 532 nm

Wang Dong-Zhi, Zhang Yi-Jun, Li Shi-Man, Tong Ze-Hao, Tang Song, Shi Feng, Jiao Gang-Cheng, Cheng Hong-Chang, Fu Rong-Guo, Qian Yun-Sheng, Zeng Yu-Gang
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  • AlGaAs光电阴极具有响应速度快和光谱响应范围可调的特性, 可被应用于水下光通信领域. 为了解决AlGaAs发射层较低的光吸收限制其量子效率提高的问题, 利用分布式布拉格反射镜(DBR)结构对特定波长光的反射作用, 将透过光重新反射回发射层进一步提高吸收率, 从而增强阴极在532 nm波长处的响应能力. 通过求解一维连续性方程, 建立了具有DBR结构的AlGaAs光电阴极光谱响应模型. 采用时域有限差分法, 分析了DBR结构中子层周期对数、子层材料以及发射层、缓冲层厚度对发射层吸收率的影响, 对比了有无DBR结构AlGaAs光电阴极的光吸收分布. 结果表明, 周期对数为20、子层材料为Al0.7Ga0.3As/AlAs的DBR结构对532 nm光的反射效果最优. 基于该DBR结构, 发射层和缓冲层厚度分别为495 nm和50 nm时, 发射层对532 nm光具有最佳吸收率. 通过对外延生长的AlGaAs光电阴极进行激活实验, 结果表明具有DBR结构的AlGaAs光电阴极在532 nm波长处的光谱响应率相比无DBR结构的AlGaAs光电阴极光谱响应率提升了约1倍.
    The AlGaAs photocathode can be used in the field of underwater optical communication because of its fast response speed and adjustable spectral response range. In order to solve the problem that the low light absorption of the AlGaAs emission layer limits the improvement of its quantum efficiency, the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure is used to reflect the light at a specific wavelength back to the emission layer to further increase the absorption rate, thus improving the response capability of the photocathode at 532 nm. The spectral response model of the AlGaAs photocathode with DBR structure is obtained by solving one-dimensional continuity equation. The optical model of the AlGaAs photocathode with enhanced response at 532 nm is established by the finite-difference time-domain method. The effects of the sublayer periodic pairs, the sublayer material and the thickness of emission layer and buffer layer on the absorption rate of emission layer are analyzed. The light absorption distributions of AlGaAs photocathode with and without DBR structure are compared, and the influence mechanism of DBR structure on the blue-green light absorption capacity of AlGaAs photocathode emission layer is clarified, which can provide a theoretical basis for designing its structural parameters. The results show that the DBR structure with a periodic pair of 20 and Al0.7Ga0.3As/AlAs has the best reflection effect on 532 nm light. Based on the DBR structure, when the thickness of the emission layer and buffer layer are 495 nm and 50 nm, respectively, the emission layer has the best absorption rate of 532 nm light. Furthermore, two kinds of AlGaAs photocathodes with and without DBR structure are prepared by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technology, and the reflectivity and profile structure of the grown samples are characterized. Then the Cs/O activation experiments are performed to compare the spectral response curves. It is found that the spectral response of the AlGaAs photocathode sample with DBR structure at 532 nm wavelength is about twice that of the sample without DBR structure.
  • 图 1  AlGaAs光电阴极结构示意图 (a) 设计的自上而下结构; (b) 传统结构与设计结构的光路对比

    Fig. 1.  Structure diagram of AlGaAs photocathode: (a) The designed top-down structure; (b) comparison of the optical path between the traditional structure and the designed structure.

    图 2  FDTD仿真区域和监视器设置

    Fig. 2.  FDTD simulation region and monitor settings.

    图 3  不同子层交替对数的DBR层反射谱

    Fig. 3.  Reflectivity of DBR layer with different sublayer alternating pairs.

    图 4  DBR层的光学性质 (a) 不同子层材料的反射谱; (b) 不同子层材料的消光系数

    Fig. 4.  Optical properties of DBR layer: (a) Reflectivity for different sublayer materials; (b) extinction coefficient of different sublayer materials.

    图 5  发射层吸收率随阴极厚度的变化 (a) 发射层厚度; (b) 缓冲层厚度

    Fig. 5.  Variation of emission layer absorptivity with cathode thickness: (a) Different emission layer thickness Le; (b) different buffer layer thickness Lb.

    图 6  有无DBR结构情况下的AlGaAs光电阴极在532 nm处的光吸收强度分布图

    Fig. 6.  Optical absorption intensity distribution at 532 nm of AlGaAs photocathodes with or without DBR structure.

    图 7  结构A与结构B阴极样品SEM图

    Fig. 7.  SEM images of cathode samples with structure A and structure B.

    图 8  (a)结构A与(b)结构B阴极样品反射率实测、理论和拟合结果对比图

    Fig. 8.  Comparison of measured, theoretical and fitting results of reflectivity of cathode samples with (a) structure A and (b) structure B.

    图 9  (a)结构A与(b)结构B 阴极样品的Cs/O激活光电流曲线

    Fig. 9.  Cs/O activation photocurrent curves of cathode samples with structure A and structure B.

    图 10  结构A与结构B 阴极样品的光谱响应实测和拟合曲线与反射率实测曲线

    Fig. 10.  Measured and fitted spectral response curves and measured reflectivity curves of cathode samples with structure A and structure B.

    表 1  阴极样品结构参数拟合结果

    Table 1.  Fitting results of structure parameters of the cathode samples.

    材料结构A结构B
    设计值/nm实际值/nm设计值/nm实际值/nm
    Al0.63Ga0.37As发射层495500495522
    Al0.8Ga0.2As缓冲层50605060
    DBR层Al0.7Ga0.3As子层3634.9
    DBR层AlAs子层4138.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  阴极性能参量拟合结果

    Table 2.  Fitting results of cathode performance parameters.

    结构A结构B描述
    P00.360.25表面电子逸出概率
    K0.20.6表面势垒因子
    Sv/(cm·s–1)4×1041×105后界面电子复合速率
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-02-08
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-29
  • 上网日期:  2024-04-17

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