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铌基超导量子比特及辅助器件的制备

宿非凡 杨钊华 赵寿宽 严海生 田野 赵士平

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铌基超导量子比特及辅助器件的制备

宿非凡, 杨钊华, 赵寿宽, 严海生, 田野, 赵士平

Fabrication of superconducting qubits and auxiliary devices with niobium base layer

Su Fei-Fan, Yang Zhao-Hua, Zhao Shou-Kuan, Yan Hai-Sheng, Tian Ye, Zhao Shi-Ping
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  • 近年来超导量子计算的研究方兴未艾, 随着谷歌宣布首次实现“量子优势”, 这一领域的研究受到了人们进一步的广泛关注. 超导量子比特是具有量子化能级、量子态叠加和量子态纠缠等典型量子特性的宏观器件, 通过电磁脉冲信号控制磁通量、电荷或具有非线性电感和无能量耗散的约瑟夫森结上的位相差, 可对量子态进行精确调控, 从而实现量子计算和量子信息处理. 超导量子比特有着诸多方面的优势, 很有希望成为普适量子计算的核心组成部分. 以铌或其他硬金属(如钽等)为首层大面积材料制备的超导量子比特及辅助器件(简称铌基器件)拥有其独特的优点以及进一步发展的空间, 目前已引起越来越多的兴趣. 本文将介绍常见的多种超导量子比特的基本构成和工作原理, 进而按照器件加工的一般顺序, 从基片选择和预处理、薄膜生长、图形转移、刻蚀和约瑟夫森结的制备等方面详细介绍铌基超导量子比特及其辅助器件的多种制备工艺, 为超导量子比特的制备提供一个可借鉴的清晰的工艺过程. 最后, 介绍若干制备铌基超导量子比特与辅助器件的具体例子, 并对器件制备的工艺与方法的优化做展望.
    Over the past two decades significant advances have been made in the research of superconducting quantum computing and quantum simulation, in particular of the device design and fabrication that leads to ever-increasing superconducting qubit coherence times and scales. With Google’s announcement of the realization of “quantum supremacy”, superconducting quantum computing has attracted even more attention. Superconducting qubits are macroscopic objects with quantum properties such as quantized energy levels and quantum-state superposition and entanglement. Their quantum states can be precisely manipulated by tuning the magnetic flux, charge, and phase difference of the Josephson junctions with nonlinear inductance through electromagnetic pulse signals, thereby implementing the quantum information processing. They have advantages in many aspects and are expected to become the central part of universal quantum computing. Superconducting qubits and auxiliary devices prepared with niobium or other hard metals like tantalum as bottom layers of large-area components have unique properties and potentials for further development. In this paper the research work in this area is briefly reviewed, starting from the design and working principle of a variety of superconducting qubits, to the detailed procedures of substrate selection and pretreatment, film growth, pattern transfer, etching, and Josephson junction fabrication, and finally the practical superconducting qubit and their auxiliary device fabrications with niobium base layers are also presented. We aim to provide a clear overview for the fabrication process of these superconducting devices as well as an outlook for further device improvement and optimization in order to help establish a perspective for future progress.
      通信作者: 赵士平, spzhao@iphy.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11874063)和广东省重点领域研发计划(批准号: 2018B030326001)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhao Shi-Ping, spzhao@iphy.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11874063) and the Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2018B030326001)
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  • 图 1  早期3种超导量子比特的电路模型、势能和能级图[50] (a)电荷量子比特; (b)磁通量子比特; (c)位相量子比特

    Fig. 1.  Circuit diagram, potential energy and energy levels of three superconducting qubits: (a) Charge qubit; (b) flux qubit; (c) phase qubit [50].

    图 2  Xmon超导量子比特[47] (a) 器件照片; (b) 约瑟夫森结区放大图; (c) 电路示意图

    Fig. 2.  Superconducting Xmon qubit [47]: (a) Optical micrograph; (b) magnified view of Josephson-junction area; (c) circuit diagram.

    图 3  Fluxonium量子比特[48] (a) 器件照片; (b) 天线; (c) 3D腔; (d) 电路示意; (e) 势能和能级示意图

    Fig. 3.  Superconducting fluxonium qubit [48]: (a) Optical micrograph; (b) antenna; (c) 3D resonator; (d) circuit diagram; (e) potential energy and energy levels.

    图 4  并联电容磁通量子比特[49] (a) 样品基本结构; (b) 电容部分; (c) 约瑟夫森结部分

    Fig. 4.  C-shunt flux qubit[49]: (a) Device structure; (b) capacitor area; (c) Josephson-junction area.

    图 5  HiPIMS工艺制备的铌膜与普通磁控溅射方法生长的铌膜致密性对比[72]

    Fig. 5.  Comparison of the density of niobium film prepared by Hipims process with that by conventional magnetron sputtering[72].

    图 6  两种约瑟夫森结设计方案 (a), (c)设计图; (b), (d)对应设计图制备的约瑟夫森结电镜照片[112,113]

    Fig. 6.  Two designs of Josephson junctions: (a), (c) Design drawings; (b), (d) electron micrographs of Josephson junctions prepared by corresponding designs [112,113].

    图 7  (a)铌基位相量子位中心区域的光学显微镜照片, 硅基片呈绿色, 而较暗和较亮的金属部分是Nb和Al薄膜; (b)位相量子比特能谱与能量弛豫时间的测量结果[38]

    Fig. 7.  (a) Optical microscope image of the central region of Nb-based phase qubit, the substrate appears greenish in color while the darker and brighter parts are the Nb and Al films; (b) measurement results of energy spectrum and energy relaxation time of phase qubit[38].

    图 8  (a) 铌基nSQUID量子比特中心部分的假色光学照片, 衬底、Nb层、Al层和α-Si层分别呈灰色、浅黄色、白色和棕色; (b)—(e) nSQUID量子比特不同条件下的典型二维势阱[40]

    Fig. 8.  (a) False-colored optical photograph of the central part of Nb-based nSQUID qubit with the substrate, Nb layer, Al layers, and α-Si layer appearing in gray, light yellow, white, and brown, respectively; (b)–(e) Typical 2D potential landscapes of the nSQUID qubit [40].

    图 9  (a)铌基耦合10比特器件中心区域; (b)跨过控制线的空气桥; (c)包含两个约瑟夫森结的SQUID环区域; (d)样品能量弛豫时间测量结果[39]

    Fig. 9.  Microscope images of (a) the central region of Nb-based coupled 10-qubit device; (b) an airbridge across the control line; (c) the SQUID loop area containing two Josephson junctions; (d) measurement results of sample energy relaxation time[39].

    图 10  (a)铌基JPA光学照片; (b)增益与(c)噪声温度随频率的关系 [41]

    Fig. 10.  (a) False-colored optical photograph of Nb-based JPA device; (b) frequency dependences of the device gain and noise temperature (c) [41].

    表 1  不同生长模式制备的铌薄膜器件性质[72]

    Table 1.  Properties of niobium thin film devices with different growth modes[72].

    DepositionSputteredHiPIMS optHiPIMS norm
    T1/μs56 ± 1233 ± 217 ± 9
    RRR8.9 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.22.9 ± 0.1
    Tc/K9.0 ± 0.18.6 ± 0.18.1 ± 0.1
    GSA/nm21140 ± 70500 ± 50180 ± 30
    Nb61 ± 364 ± 345 ± 2
    NbOx15.1 ± 0.216.0 ± 0.320.4 ± 0.8
    NbO0 ± 20 ± 15 ± 1
    NbO23.1 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.210 ± 2
    Nb2O520 ± 115.9 ± 0.819 ± 2
    Suboxide19 ± 220 ± 136 ± 2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  不同方法生长铌薄膜以及所制备谐振腔的性质[57]

    Table 2.  Growth of niobium thin films by different methods and fabricated resonator properties [57].

    ProcessaIn vacuo cleaningw/μmf0/GHzQi-H×106Qi-L×106
    (A) Sputter100 eV Ar+ mill for 2 min3
    15
    3.833
    6.129
    4.30
    4.50
    0.16
    0.40
    (B) E-beam60 eV Ar+ mill for 2 min3
    15
    3.810
    6.089
    9.90
    4.40
    0.66
    0.72
    (C) MBENone6
    15
    4.973
    6.120
    5.70
    4.33
    0.53
    0.76
    (D) MBELLb anneal3
    15
    3.773
    6.125
    6.58
    5.38
    0.75
    0.80
    (E) MBELLb and 850 ℃ anneal3
    15
    3.876
    6.127
    10.10
    6.40
    1.15
    0.92
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-08
  • 修回日期:  2021-11-05
  • 上网日期:  2022-02-28
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