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离子辐照对材料磁性的调控及其应用

郭玺 左亚路 崔宝山 申铁龙 盛彦斌 席力

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离子辐照对材料磁性的调控及其应用

郭玺, 左亚路, 崔宝山, 申铁龙, 盛彦斌, 席力

Ion irradiation modulated magnetic properties of materials and its applications

Guo Xi, Zuo Ya-Lu, Cui Bao-Shan, Shen Tie-Long, Sheng Yan-Bin, Xi Li
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  • 离子辐照技术具有离子束能量密度高、实验条件可精确控制, 且不受化学剂量比影响的特点, 利用离子束辐照材料, 可实现定向掺杂, 或精确引入和调控现缺陷位和密度等优势, 因此在多个领域, 如材料改性、芯片制造、生物医学、能源及化工领域都得到了广泛应用. 尤其在磁性材料改性领域, 该技术能够通过细致控制离子束的能量、剂量和辐照方向, 实现对磁性材料的定制化性能优化. 为进一步提升磁性材料的性能并探索新的磁性器件, 本文深入地探讨了离子辐照如何精确调制各种磁相互作用, 并分析其对自旋霍尔效应和磁结构动力学的影响. 首先着重介绍了离子辐照在调控垂直磁各向异性、交换偏置及RKKY相互作用等磁性特征方面的最新研究成果. 这些调控手段对于理解和优化磁性材料的微观结构和性质至关重要. 接着, 本文详细地探讨了离子辐照在调控自旋轨道力矩器件中的重要作用. 这些应用展示了离子辐照技术在设计高性能磁性存储和处理器件方面的潜力. 最后, 还讨论了辐照离子种类、能量、剂量、辐照面积等参数对磁斯格明子成核位置、密度、尺寸、稳定性以及磁斯格明子霍尔效应的调控作用, 阐明了离子辐照改变磁斯格明子生成、湮灭、运动规律等方面的内在机理, 为制备基于磁斯格明子运动的低功耗存储器件提供新的途径. 此外, 本文还就离子辐照技术在未来多功能磁性传感器及信息存储磁介质制备方面的可能应用进行了前瞻性分析. 离子辐照技术为磁性材料的性能调控和应用扩展提供了新的可能性. 随着研究的深入, 这项技术有望在未来的材料科学、电子器件以及信息技术等多个领域发挥更大的作用.
    Ion irradiation, a technology in which ion beams are used to irradiate materials, has high manipulation precision, short processing time, and many applications in the fields of material modification, chip manufacturing, biomedicine, energy and chemicals. Especially in magnetic material modification, customized modifications of magnetic materials can be achieved by precisely controlling the energy, dose, and direction of the ion beam. To further enhance the performances of magnetic materials and explore new magnetic devices, this study focuses on how ion irradiation precisely modulates various magnetic interactions and the analysis of its influence on the spin Hall effect and magnetic structural dynamics. Firstly, the latest research achievements are emphasized of ion irradiation regulated magnetic characteristics such as perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, exchange bias, and RKKY interaction. These regulation methods are crucial for understanding and optimizing the microstructure and properties of magnetic materials. Secondly, the significant role played by ion irradiation in regulating spin-orbit torque devices is discussed in detail. These applications demonstrate the potential of ion irradiation technology in designing high-performance magnetic storage and processing devices. Finally, the future applications of ion irradiation technology in the preparation of multifunctional magnetic sensors and magnetic media for information storage are discussed, highlighting its great enormous innovation and application potential in the field of magnetic materials.
      通信作者: 席力, xili@lzu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51671098)和甘肃省自然科学基金(批准号: 22JR5RA474)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Xi Li, xili@lzu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51671098) and the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province of China (Grant No. 22JR5RA474).
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  • 图 1  (a)—(f) 不同剂量的30 keV Ga+辐照Pt/Co/Pt结构后测得的磁滞回线, 以及剩磁与辐照剂量之间的依赖关系[36] (a) 未辐照; (b) 4×1014 ions/cm2; (c) 2.5×1015 ions/cm2; (d) 6.25×1015 ions/cm2; (e) 8.75×1015 ions/cm2; (f) 剩磁与辐照剂量之间的依赖关系

    Fig. 1.  Measured hysteresis loops of 30 keV Ga+ irradiated Pt/Co/Pt structures at different doses, and the dependence between remanence and irradiation dose[36]: (a) Non-irradiated (N.I.); (b) 4×1014 ions/cm2; (c) 2.5×1015 ions/cm2; (d) 6.25×1015 ions/cm2; (e) 8.75×1015 ions/cm2; (f) relationship between the normalized remnant magnetization and Ga+ ion fluence.

    图 2  离子辐照辅助制备具有单轴各向异性或易锥面的结构 (a), (b) 间隔层为W, Ta 的Pt/Co样品受到不同剂量离子辐照后共振场的面外角依赖关系[46]; (c)—(f) 通过控制外加磁场和Ar+辐照方向之间的夹角, 在Co/Pt结构中形成单轴各向异性的过程; ○代表未辐照, ■代表剂量1014 ions/cm2, ★代表1015 ions/cm2, ▲代表3×1015 ions/cm2, ●代表3×1016 ions/cm2; 左上图显示了场辅助离子辐照实验装置的示意图; 1代表未辐照区, 2代表辐照区[47]

    Fig. 2.  Ion irradiation-assisted preparation of structures with uniaxial anisotropy or easy cone anisotropy. (a), (b) Dependence of the out-of-plane angle of the resonance field of the Pt/Co samples with the spacer layer of W, Ta irradiated by different dose[46]; (c)–(f) the process of controlling the angle between the applied magnetic field and the direction of Ar+ irradiation to form a uniaxial anisotropy in a Co/Pt structure; ○ stands for unirradiated. ■ stands for a dose of 1014 ions/cm2, ★ stands for 1015 ions/cm2, ▲ stands for 3×1015 ions/ cm2, ● represents 3×1016 ions/cm2, the upper left panel shows a schematic diagram of the experimental setup for field-assisted ion irradiation; 1 represents the unirradiated area, 2 represents the irradiated area[47].

    图 3  离子辐照调控交换偏置场大小与方向 (a) 在不同剂量辐照后交换偏置场随时间变化的函数[64]; ■代表未辐照, ◆代表辐照剂量为1×1013 ions/cm2, ▲代表辐照剂量为1014 ions/cm2, ●代表辐照剂量为1015 ions/cm2 [64]; (b) 离子辐照改变自旋阀结构的钉扎方向[57]

    Fig. 3.  Ion irradiation modulates the exchange bias field size and orientation: (a) Variation in the exchange bias field with time after irradiation at different doses[64] ■ represents unirradiated, ◆ represents irradiated dose of 1013 ions/cm2, ▲ represents an irradiation dose of 1014 ions/cm2, ● represents an irradiation dose of 1015 ions/cm2 [64]; (b) ion irradiation changes the pinning direction of the spin valve structure[57].

    图 4  不同剂量3 MeV Fe+辐照人工反铁磁样品后的磁滞回线与磁畴形貌[67] (a) 0 ions/cm2; (b) 0.5×1013 ions/cm2; (c) 1.1×1014 ions/cm2; (d) 1.7×1014 ions/cm2

    Fig. 4.  Hysteresis loops and domain morphology of 3 MeV Fe+ irradiated artificial antiferromagnetic samples under different doses[67]: (a) 0 ions/cm2; (b) 0.5×1013 ions/cm2; (c) 1.1×1014 ions/cm2; (d) 1.7×1014 ions/cm2.

    图 5  (a)不同剂量He+辐照Ta/CoFeB/MgO结构后, DW速度与外加磁场的函数关系, 以及当外场为53—56 mT时, 不同辐照剂量下的畴壁运动速度大小[79]; (b) Ta/CoFeB界面宽度与辐照剂量之间的对应关系[79]

    Fig. 5.  (a) DW velocity as a function of applied magnetic field after irradiating the Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure with different doses of He+ and the magnitude of the domain wall motion velocity at different irradiation doses when the external field is 53–56 mT[79]; (b) the lower part shows the correspondence between the width of the Ta/CoFeB interface and the irradiation dose[79].

    图 6  离子辐照Pt/Co/W结构[87] (a) 灰色区域是霍尔十字的金属电极, 绿色条纹表示磁性多层膜, 红色针探头用于测量霍尔电压, 而蓝色探针用于施加电流; (b) 反常霍尔电阻随辐照剂量在0—70 ions/nm2之间的变化情况; (c) 局部辐照过程示意图, 由于上下Co/HM界面的混合, 局部各向异性减小; (d) 在图(a)中标记的选定剂量下的由面内场驱动磁矩翻转的反常霍尔回线; (e) 由图(d)得到的经辐照和未辐照样品的归一化磁化强度; (f) 各向异性场和饱和磁化强度随辐照剂量的变化曲线

    Fig. 6.  Ion irradiation of SOT device with Pt/Co/W structure[87]: (a) The grey area is the metal electrode of Hall Cross, the green stripe indicates the magnetic multilayer film, the red pin probe is used to measure the Hall voltage while the blue probe is used to apply the current; (b) variation of the anomalous Hall loops with the irradiation dose between 0–70 ions/nm2; (c) the local irradiation process schematic, with reduced local anisotropy due to mixing at the upper and lower Co/HM interfaces; (d) anomalous Hall loop driven by in-plane field at selected doses labelled in panel (a); (e) the normalized magnetization intensity of irradiated and unirradiated samples obtained from panel (d); (f) anisotropic field and MS versus the irradiation dose.

    图 7  通过He+辐照制备的具有各向异性梯度的器件及其零场翻转测试[91] (a) 经过离子辐照后的GdCo器件的光学显微镜图像; (b) 辐照后的GdCo器件的极磁光克尔效应(p-MOKE)图像; (c) 不同辐照条件下GdCo器件的磁滞回线; (d) 剂量为25 ions/nm2辐照区域的磁滞回线; (e) 存在和不存在面内磁场(Bx)的电流感应磁化翻转回路

    Fig. 7.  He+ irradiated prepared devices with anisotropy gradient and field free switching test[91]: (a) Optical microscope image of an ion-irradiated GdCo device; (b) polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (p-MOKE) image of the dose-gradient pattern in the irradiated GdCo device; (c) hysteresis loop of the GdCo device for different irradiation condition; (d) hysteresis loop in the irradiated region at a dose of 25 ions/nm2; (e) current-induced magnetic moment flipping in presence and absence of the in-plane magnetic field (Bx).

    图 8  两种多态翻转器件 (a)—(d) 不同线宽的霍尔十字在μ0Hx = 50 mT面内磁场下的SOT驱动磁矩翻转过程及其模拟的翻转回线[92]; (e)—(g) 在125 mT面内辅助场下, SOT驱动辐照样品的多级翻转反常霍尔与磁光克尔图像[93]

    Fig. 8.  Two polymorphic flipping devices: (a)–(d) SOT-driven magnetic moment flipping process of Hall Cross with different linewidths under the magnetic field in the μ0Hx = 50 mT[92]; (e)–(g) under the auxiliary field of 125 mT, the SOT-driven multistage switching anomalous Hall loop and the magneto-optical Kerr image of irradiated sample[93].

    图 9  (a) 通过不同剂量的N+辐照, 在Ta/CoFeB/MgO结构中形成的斯格明子, 黑色虚线显示从条纹畴开始转变为斯格明子的临界磁场[103]; (b), (c)辐照剂量对斯格明子数目与寸的影响关系[103]

    Fig. 9.  (a) Skyrmion formed in Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures by irradiation with different doses of N+, and the black dashed lines show the critical magnetic field from the stripe domain to the skyrmion[103]; (b), (c) the effect of irradiation dose on the number and size of skyrmion[103].

    图 10  两种降低斯格明子霍尔效应的方法 (a) 通过聚焦离子束辐照, 设置不同的剂量在赛道上制备出的成核点(深紫色)、引导通道(淡紫色)和 钉扎位点(浅紫色). 斯格明子将限制在轨道上, 进而减小偏移[101]; (b) 经过1013 ions/cm2的Ga+离子辐照后的屏障区(浅绿色区域). 斯格明子在运动过程中将被辐照区域排斥, 减弱偏移[105]

    Fig. 10.  Two methods to reduce the Skyrmion Hall effect: (a) Setting up different irradiation dose to prepare nucleation sites (dark purple), guiding channels (purple), and pinned sites (light purple) in the track, skyrmion will be confined in the track, which will in turn diminish the deflection[101]; (b) setting up a barrier region (light green region) with Ga+ ions of 1013 ions/cm2, skyrmion will be repelled by the irradiated region during its movement, which will diminish the deflection[105].

    表 1  有效各向异性keff、热稳定性Δ以及临界翻转电流密度随辐照剂量变化的规律[87]

    Table 1.  Effective anisotropy keff, thermal stability Δ, and critical flipping current as a function of irradiation dose[87].

    Dose/(ions·nm–2) keff/(kJ·m–3) Δ ρ/(μΩ·cm) $ {I}_{{\mathrm{c}}}^{-}/{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{A}} $ $ {I}_{{\mathrm{c}}}^{+}/{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{A}} $ $ {J}_{{\mathrm{c}}}^{-} $/(MA·cm–2) $ {J}_{{\mathrm{c}}}^{+} $/(MA·cm–2)
    0 537 133 214 –7.5 7.5 –6.0 6.0
    1 521 129 214 –7.5 7.5 –6.0 6.0
    20 257 64 219 –6.2 7.5 –5.0 6.0
    30 153 39 224 –1.0 3.3 –0.8 2.7
    30 38 9 235
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2024-04-18
  • 修回日期:  2024-05-16
  • 上网日期:  2024-05-20
  • 刊出日期:  2024-07-05

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