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角向偏振涡旋光的紧聚焦特性研究以及超长超分辨光针的实现

蒋驰 耿滔

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角向偏振涡旋光的紧聚焦特性研究以及超长超分辨光针的实现

蒋驰, 耿滔

The study of tight focusing characteristics of azimuthally polarized vortex beams and the implementation of ultra-long super-resolved optical needle

Jiang Chi, Geng Tao
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  • 系统研究了角向矢量涡旋光的紧聚焦焦斑特性, 解释了焦平面自旋角动量局域化分布的形成原因. 角向矢量涡旋光可分解为左、右旋圆偏振电场叠加, 将分解所得的左、右旋分量分别经大数值孔径透镜聚焦, 总聚焦电场可视为左、右旋分量聚焦电场的干涉叠加. 经分析研究后发现, 左、右旋分量各自聚焦电场的纵向分量大小相等、相位相反, 完全干涉相消, 使得总聚焦电场的纵向分量消失; 而各自聚焦电场的横向分量则完全相反, 几乎不发生干涉, 总聚焦电场表现为非相干叠加. 角向偏振光引入涡旋相位后, 使得左、右旋电场分量的轨道角动量的拓扑荷数发生变化, 拓扑荷数的绝对值不再相等, 而是恒定差值为2. 因此左、右旋电场的横向分量由于携带不同的拓扑荷数, 分别聚在焦平面的不同位置, 而横向分量发生非相干叠加, 不相互影响, 最终形成了总电场偏振态的局域化分布, 即自旋角动量局域化分布的现象. 随后, 本文横向对比了1阶角向矢量涡旋光和径向偏振矢量光的超分辨焦斑特性, 分析了各自的优、缺点以及影响焦斑尺寸的因素. 最后, 兼顾了超分辨光针的性能和实际实现难度, 设计了6环带的二元相位板对1阶角向矢量涡旋光进行了波前调制, 实现了横向半高全宽为$0.391\lambda $, 纵向半高全宽为$25.5\lambda $的超长超分辨光针.
    The tight focusing characteristics of azimuthally polarized vortex beams are systematically investigated in this work. The azimuthally polarized vortex beam can be decomposed into left-handed circularly polarized (LHCP) wave and right-handed circularly polarized ( RHCP) wave. It is found that the longitudinal component of LHCP and RHCP at the focal plane are equal in magnitude but opposite in phase. Thus, the total longitudinal field disappears because of the completely destructive interference. In contrast, there is almost no interference between the transverse component of LHCP and RHCP. Thus, the total transverse field is the incoherent superposition of them. Since the absolute value of the topological charge of LHCP component and RHCP component are not equal, the transverse component of LHCP and RHCP will be concentrated in the different areas on the focal plane. It is the reason for the orbit-induced SAM to be localized on the focal plane. Then, we compare the focal spot characteristics of the radially polarized beam and the azimuthally polarized beam with a first-order vortex. The advantages and disadvantages of them are discussed in detail, respectively.For the radially polarized beam, the central focal spot is mainly longitudinal component, and the sidelobe is mainly transverse component. For the azimuthally polarized vortex beam with $l = 1$, the central focal spot is mainly LHCP component, and the sidelobe is mainly RHCP component. In both cases, the field distributions of the central spots are the same, and both show a distribution similar to the zero-order Bessel function. The situation of the sidelobe is different. The sidelobe of the radially polarized beam shows a distribution similar to the first-order Bessel function and the sidelobe of the azimuthally polarized vortex beam indicates a distribution similar to the second-order Bessel function. Therefore, the sidelobe of the radially polarized beam is closer to that of the optical axis, resulting in a larger central focal spot size. On the other hand, the sidelobe of the radially polarized beam accounts for a much smaller proportion of the total energy than that of the azimuthally polarized vortex beam. So the sidelobe peak intensity of the radially polarized beam is lower. Finally, an optimal binary phase element is designed to obtain an ultra-long super-resolution optical needle. The transverse full weight of half maximum (FWHM) can achieve $0.391\lambda $ and the longitudinal FWHM can reach to $25.5\lambda $ by using only 6 belts.
      通信作者: 耿滔, Tao_Geng@hotmail.com
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61975125)和上海市自然科学基金(批准号: 21ZR1443800)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Geng Tao, Tao_Geng@hotmail.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61975125) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 21ZR1443800).
    [1]

    Li Y C, Xin H B, Lei H X, Liu L L, Li Y Z, Zhang Y, Li B J 2016 Light Sci. Appl. 5 e16176Google Scholar

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    Gong Z, Pan Y L, Videen G, Wang C 2018 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 214 94Google Scholar

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    Wetzstein G, Ozcan A, Gigan S, Fan S, Englund D, Soljačić M, Denz C, Miller D A B, Psaltis D 2020 Nature 588 39Google Scholar

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    许琳茜, 朱榕琪, 朱竹青, 贡丽萍, 顾兵 2022 物理学报 71 147801Google Scholar

    Xu L X, Zhu R Q, Zhu Z Q, Gong L P, Gu B 2022 Acta Phys. Sin. 71 147801Google Scholar

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    Zhang L, Qiu X D, Zeng L W, Chen L X 2019 Chin. Phys. B 28 094202Google Scholar

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    Zhao J, Winetraub Y, Du L, Van Vleck A, Ichimura K, Huang C, Aasi S Z, Sarin K Y, de la Zerda A 2022 Optica 9 859Google Scholar

    [7]

    Cao R, Zhao J J, Li L, Du L, Zhang Y D, Luo Y L, Jiang L M, Davis S, Zhou Q F, de la Zerda A, Wang L V 2022 Nat. Photon. 17 89Google Scholar

    [8]

    Wang H, Shi L, Lukyanchuk B, Sheppard C, Chong C T 2008 Nat. Photon. 2 501Google Scholar

    [9]

    Huang K, Shi P, Kang X L, Zhang X, Li Y P 2010 Opt. Lett. 35 965Google Scholar

    [10]

    Guo H M, Weng X Y, Jiang M, Zhao Y H, Sui G R, Hu Q, Wang Y, Zhuang S L 2013 Opt. Express 21 5363Google Scholar

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    Zhang T, Li M, Ye H, Shi C 2020 Opt. Commun. 460 125178Google Scholar

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    He J, Zhuang J C, Ding L, Huang K 2021 Appl. Opt. 60 3081Google Scholar

    [13]

    Hao X, Kuang C F, Wang T T, Liu X 2010 Opt. Lett. 35 3928Google Scholar

    [14]

    Yuan G H, Wei S B, Yuan X C 2011 Opt. Lett. 36 3479Google Scholar

    [15]

    Wang S C, Li X P, Zhou J Y, Gu M 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 5022Google Scholar

    [16]

    Liu L, Shi L, Li F, Yu S, Wang S, Du J, Liu M, Qi B, Yan W 2021 IEEE Photon. J. 13 1Google Scholar

    [17]

    Gao X Z, Zhao P C, Zhao J H, Sun X F, Liu J J, Yang F, Pan Y 2022 Opt. Express 30 26275Google Scholar

    [18]

    Zhan Q 2009 Adv. Opt. Photon. 1 1Google Scholar

    [19]

    Kozawa Y, Sato S 2021 Prog. Opt. 66 35Google Scholar

    [20]

    Sato S, Kozawa Y 2009 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 26 142Google Scholar

    [21]

    Li M M, Cai Y N, Yan S H, Liang Y S, Zhang P, Yao B L 2018 Phys. Rev. A 97 053842Google Scholar

    [22]

    Monteiro P B, Neto P A M, Nussenzveig H M 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 033830Google Scholar

    [23]

    Ostrovsky A S, Rickenstorff-Parrao C, Arrizón V 2013 Opt. Lett. 38 534Google Scholar

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    Grosjean T, Courjon D 2007 Opt. Commun. 272 314Google Scholar

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    Vaity P, Rusch L 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 597Google Scholar

  • 图 1  $l = 1$时, 焦平面的(a)光强和偏振分布; (b)斯托克斯分量S3的分布. 图尺寸为$1.5\lambda \times 1.5\lambda $

    Fig. 1.  (a) Intensity and polarization distributions of the beam at the focal plane with $l = 1$; (b) calculation results of Stokes parameters S3 at the focal plane with $l = 1$.

    图 2  (a) $l = 2$和(b) $l = 0$时, 焦平面的左旋分量${I_{{\text{EL}}}}$、右旋分量${I_{{\text{ER}}}}$、总光强${I_0}$以及斯托克斯分量S3分布

    Fig. 2.  Intensity of the left-handed component, intensity of the right-handed component, total intensity and the Stokes parameters S3 at the focal plane with (a) $l = 2$ and (b) $l = 0$.

    图 3  $l = 1$时, ${E_{{\text{0 L}}}}$${E_{{\text{0 R}}}}$的横向分量在焦平面的相干叠加和非相干叠加的光强计算结果

    Fig. 3.  Calculation results of coherent superposition and incoherent superposition of the transverse components of ${E_{{\text{0 L}}}}$ and ${E_{{\text{0 R}}}}$ with $l = 1$.

    图 4  不同情况下, ${I_{\text{A}}}$${I_{\text{R}}}$的计算结果(图中同时给出了各自的第2项计算结果以便于比较) (a) $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 1$; (b) $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$; (c) $n = 1.52$, ${\text{NA}} = 1.4$

    Fig. 4.  Calculation results of ${I_{\text{A}}}$ and ${I_{\text{R}}}$ under different conditions: (a) $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 1$; (b) $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$; (c) $n = 1.52$, ${\text{NA}} = 1.4$. The second terms of ${I_{\text{A}}}$ and ${I_{\text{R}}}$ are also shown here for the convenience of comparing

    图 5  $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$时, 径向偏振光和1阶角向矢量涡旋光的焦斑FWHM随$R/T$的变化曲线

    Fig. 5.  Focus FWHM of different beams as a function of $R/T$ with $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$.

    图 6  (a)六环带相位板示意图; (b)聚焦过程示意图

    Fig. 6.  (a) Phase structure of a six-belt binary element; (b) the focusing setup.

    图 7  $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$, $R/T = 25$时, (a)相位调制前后的焦平面光强分布; (b)相位调制前后的光轴光强分布; (c)调制前焦点区域$\rho {\text{-}}z$面的二维光强分布; (d)调制后焦点区域$\rho {\text{-}}z$面的二维光强分布

    Fig. 7.  Under the condition of $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$, $R/T = 25$, (a) the intensity distributions at the focal plane with and without phase modulation, (b) the intensity distributions at the optic axis with and without phase modulation, (c) the two-dimensional (2D) intensity distribution in the $\rho {\text{-}}z$ plane without phase modulation, and (d) the 2D intensity distribution in the $\rho {\text{-}}z$ plane with phase modulation.

    表 1  不同情况下, 由(30)式和(31)式计算获得的中心焦斑的FWHM (${\lambda _n} = \lambda /n$为介质中波长)

    Table 1.  Calculation results of FWHM of the focal spot by using Eqs. (30) and (31) under different conditions. Here, ${\lambda _n} = \lambda /n$ is the wavelength in the medium.

    $n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 1$$n = 1$, ${\text{NA}} = 0.95$$n = 1.52$, ${\text{NA}} = 1.4$
    ${I_{\rm A}}$的FWHM$0.371{\lambda _n}$$0.389{\lambda _n}$$0.403{\lambda _n}$
    ${I_{\text{R}}}$的FWHM$0.359{\lambda _n}$$0.391{\lambda _n}$$0.412{\lambda _n}$
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Li Y C, Xin H B, Lei H X, Liu L L, Li Y Z, Zhang Y, Li B J 2016 Light Sci. Appl. 5 e16176Google Scholar

    [2]

    Gong Z, Pan Y L, Videen G, Wang C 2018 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 214 94Google Scholar

    [3]

    Wetzstein G, Ozcan A, Gigan S, Fan S, Englund D, Soljačić M, Denz C, Miller D A B, Psaltis D 2020 Nature 588 39Google Scholar

    [4]

    许琳茜, 朱榕琪, 朱竹青, 贡丽萍, 顾兵 2022 物理学报 71 147801Google Scholar

    Xu L X, Zhu R Q, Zhu Z Q, Gong L P, Gu B 2022 Acta Phys. Sin. 71 147801Google Scholar

    [5]

    Zhang L, Qiu X D, Zeng L W, Chen L X 2019 Chin. Phys. B 28 094202Google Scholar

    [6]

    Zhao J, Winetraub Y, Du L, Van Vleck A, Ichimura K, Huang C, Aasi S Z, Sarin K Y, de la Zerda A 2022 Optica 9 859Google Scholar

    [7]

    Cao R, Zhao J J, Li L, Du L, Zhang Y D, Luo Y L, Jiang L M, Davis S, Zhou Q F, de la Zerda A, Wang L V 2022 Nat. Photon. 17 89Google Scholar

    [8]

    Wang H, Shi L, Lukyanchuk B, Sheppard C, Chong C T 2008 Nat. Photon. 2 501Google Scholar

    [9]

    Huang K, Shi P, Kang X L, Zhang X, Li Y P 2010 Opt. Lett. 35 965Google Scholar

    [10]

    Guo H M, Weng X Y, Jiang M, Zhao Y H, Sui G R, Hu Q, Wang Y, Zhuang S L 2013 Opt. Express 21 5363Google Scholar

    [11]

    Zhang T, Li M, Ye H, Shi C 2020 Opt. Commun. 460 125178Google Scholar

    [12]

    He J, Zhuang J C, Ding L, Huang K 2021 Appl. Opt. 60 3081Google Scholar

    [13]

    Hao X, Kuang C F, Wang T T, Liu X 2010 Opt. Lett. 35 3928Google Scholar

    [14]

    Yuan G H, Wei S B, Yuan X C 2011 Opt. Lett. 36 3479Google Scholar

    [15]

    Wang S C, Li X P, Zhou J Y, Gu M 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 5022Google Scholar

    [16]

    Liu L, Shi L, Li F, Yu S, Wang S, Du J, Liu M, Qi B, Yan W 2021 IEEE Photon. J. 13 1Google Scholar

    [17]

    Gao X Z, Zhao P C, Zhao J H, Sun X F, Liu J J, Yang F, Pan Y 2022 Opt. Express 30 26275Google Scholar

    [18]

    Zhan Q 2009 Adv. Opt. Photon. 1 1Google Scholar

    [19]

    Kozawa Y, Sato S 2021 Prog. Opt. 66 35Google Scholar

    [20]

    Sato S, Kozawa Y 2009 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 26 142Google Scholar

    [21]

    Li M M, Cai Y N, Yan S H, Liang Y S, Zhang P, Yao B L 2018 Phys. Rev. A 97 053842Google Scholar

    [22]

    Monteiro P B, Neto P A M, Nussenzveig H M 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 033830Google Scholar

    [23]

    Ostrovsky A S, Rickenstorff-Parrao C, Arrizón V 2013 Opt. Lett. 38 534Google Scholar

    [24]

    Grosjean T, Courjon D 2007 Opt. Commun. 272 314Google Scholar

    [25]

    Vaity P, Rusch L 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 597Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-01
  • 修回日期:  2023-04-03
  • 上网日期:  2023-04-26
  • 刊出日期:  2023-06-20

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