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自驱动柔性生物医学传感器的研究进展

谈溥川 赵超超 樊瑜波 李舟

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自驱动柔性生物医学传感器的研究进展

谈溥川, 赵超超, 樊瑜波, 李舟

Research progress of self-powered flexible biomedical sensors

Tan Pu-Chuan, Zhao Chao-Chao, Fan Yu-Bo, Li Zhou
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  • 柔性传感器是生物医学领域的研究热点, 受到了广泛的关注. 然而, 柔性传感器需要外部电池供能, 续航时间短, 这成为了制约其发展的瓶颈. 自驱动电子器件概念的提出, 为解决续航问题提供了重要思路. 本文梳理了自驱动柔性生物医学传感器的最新研究进展, 从原理、材料、器件和生物医学应用等角度出发, 概述了不同自驱动技术在人体生理信号传感方面的技术特点与研究现状, 重点介绍了部分穿戴式和植入式自驱动柔性传感器在人体的呼吸、脉搏、温度监测和人工感觉器官中的代表性研究工作. 最后, 本文还对自驱动柔性生物医学传感器当前的挑战和未来的发展趋势进行了展望和总结.
    In recent years, flexible biomedical sensors have received extensive attention and achieved great development. However, the battery life of flexible biomedical sensors is limited, which has become a bottleneck restricting the development of flexible biomedical sensors. The concept of self-powered flexible biomedical sensor provides an important idea for solving battery life problem. This review summarizes the research progress of self-powered flexible biomedical sensors over the years. Besides, this review discusses several self-powered flexible biomedical sensors based on different power generation technologies and different materials, as well as their respective advantages and scope of application. Further, some representative research works are selected and discussed in detail. Self-powered flexible biomedical sensors can be divided into wearable self-powered flexible biomedical sensors and implantable self-powered flexible biomedical sensors according to their working positions, which can be used to collect important physiological indicators such as human respiration, pulse, temperature, etc. Finally, this paper also predicts and evaluates the future research direction of self-powered flexible biomedical sensors.
      通信作者: 樊瑜波, yubofan@buaa.edu.cn ; 李舟, zli@binn.cas.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家级-国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0202703)
      Corresponding author: Fan Yu-Bo, yubofan@buaa.edu.cn ; Li Zhou, zli@binn.cas.cn
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  • 图 1  自驱动柔性生物医学传感器的设计思路 (a)主动式生物医学传感器直接收集各种生理信号并转化为电信号; (b)能源式生物医学传感器收集能量再为商用传感器提供能量

    Fig. 1.  Design concept of self-powered flexible biomedical sensor: (a) Active biomedical sensors directly collect various physiological signals and convert them into electrical signals; (b) energy-type biomedical sensors collect energy and provide energy for commercial sensors.

    图 2  压电纳米发电机的工作原理[34] (a) ZnO的晶体结构模型; (b) ZnO纳米线的压电势; (c) ZnO纳米线压电势有限元分析; (d) 压电纳米发电机的发电机制

    Fig. 2.  Working mechanism of piezoelectric nanogenerator[34]: (a) Crystal model of ZnO; (b) piezoelectric potential of ZnO nanowire; (c) finite element analysis of piezoelectric potential of ZnO nanowires; (d) mechanism of piezoelectric nanogenerator.

    图 3  摩擦纳米发电机的4种工作模式[36] (a) 接触分离式摩擦纳米发电机; (b) 滑动式摩擦纳米发电机; (c) 单电极模式摩擦纳米发电机; (d) 独立层式摩擦纳米发电机

    Fig. 3.  Four working modes of triboelectric nanogenerator[36]: (a) Vertical contact separation mode; (b) lateral sliding mode; (c) single-electrode mode; (d) freestanding triboelectric-layer mode.

    图 4  热电发电机的发电原理[41]

    Fig. 4.  Working mechanism of thermoelectric generator based on spin Seebeck effect[41].

    图 5  自驱动柔性呼吸传感器 (a)基于柔性压电纳米发电机的穿戴式自驱动呼吸传感器[27]; (b)与N95口罩集成的热释电可穿戴呼吸传感器[46]; (c)基于摩擦纳米发电机的主动式酒精呼吸分析仪[47]

    Fig. 5.  Self-powered flexible respiratory sensor: (a) Wearable self-powered active sensor for respiration monitoring based on a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator[27]; (b) wearable respiration sensor based on a pyroelectric nanogenerator integrated with an N95 respira-tor[46]; (c) blow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator as an active alcohol breath analyzer[47].

    图 6  自驱动柔性脉搏传感器 (a)用于实时生物医学监测的自驱动多功能植入式传感器[49]; (b)基于摩擦电效应的柔性自驱动超灵敏脉搏传感器[50]; (c)基于有机光伏电池的自驱动超柔性生物传感器[51]

    Fig. 6.  Self-powered flexible pulse sensor: (a) Self-powered, one-stop, and multifunctional implantable triboelectric active sensor for real-time biomedical monitoring[49]; (b) flexible self-powered ultrasensitive pulse sensor based on triboelectric effect[50]; (c) self-powered ultra-flexible biosensor based on nanograting-patterned organic photovoltaics[51].

    图 7  自驱动柔性体温传感器 (a)基于热释电发电机的自驱动温度传感器[52]; (b)由热电材料制成的自驱动温度-压力双参数传感器[53]; (c)基于复合发电机的温度传感器系统[8]

    Fig. 7.  Self-powered flexible temperature sensor. (a) Self-powered temperature sensor based on a PyNG[52]; (b) self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensor fabricated by organic thermoelectric materials[53]; (c) wireless temperature sensor system based on hybridized nanogenerator[8].

    图 8  自驱动柔性人工感觉器官 (a)用于机器人和助听器的自驱动听觉传感器[59]; (b)用于可穿戴电子设备的自驱动触觉传感器[60]; (c)用于智能嗅觉替换的摩擦电-脑-行为闭环[61]

    Fig. 8.  Self-powered flexible artificial sense organ: (a) Self-powered triboelectric auditory sensor for social robotics and hearing aids[59]; (b) self-powered triboelectric tactile sensor with metallized nanofibers for wearable electronics[60]; (c) an artificial triboelectricity-brain-behavior closed loop for intelligent olfactory substitution[61].

    图 9  自驱动柔性生物传感器的重要研究方向 (a)多功能的传感系统[63]; (b)无线信号传输[65]; (c)柔性人机界面[66]

    Fig. 9.  Core research directions of self-powered flexible biomedical sensor: (a) Multifunctional sensing system[63]; (b) wireless signal transmission[65]; (c) flexible man-machine interface[66].

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-06-28
  • 修回日期:  2020-07-29
  • 上网日期:  2020-09-03
  • 刊出日期:  2020-09-05

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