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迈向效率大于30%的钙钛矿/晶硅叠层太阳能电池技术的研究进展

张美荣 祝曾伟 杨晓琴 于同旭 郁骁琦 卢荻 李顺峰 周大勇 杨辉

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迈向效率大于30%的钙钛矿/晶硅叠层太阳能电池技术的研究进展

张美荣, 祝曾伟, 杨晓琴, 于同旭, 郁骁琦, 卢荻, 李顺峰, 周大勇, 杨辉

Research progress of perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells with efficiency of over 30%

Zhang Mei-Rong, Zhu Zeng-Wei, Yang Xiao-Qin, Yu Tong-Xu, Yu Xiao-Qi, Lu Di, Li Shun-Feng, Zhou Da-Yong, Yang Hui
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  • 双结叠层太阳能电池由两个具有不同带隙吸收体的电池组成, 通过差异化吸收更宽范围波长的太阳光, 降低光子热化损失, 已展现出打破单结太阳能电池Shockley-Queisser极限效率的巨大优势. 获益于钙钛矿电池带隙可调和制备成本低的优点以及晶硅电池产业化的优势, 钙钛矿/晶硅叠层太阳电池成为光伏领域的研究热点. 本文系统的梳理了钙钛矿/晶硅叠层太阳能电池的最新研究进展, 重点从钙钛矿顶电池、中间互联层和晶硅底电池的结构出发, 总结出高效叠层器件在光学和电学方面的设计原则. 本文还详细地分析了限制钙钛矿/晶硅叠层太阳能电池继续提效的关键因素及解决措施, 这对于钙钛矿/晶硅叠层太阳能电池的产业化之路是非常重要的. 最后, 对下一代更高效率的低成本叠层太阳能电池进行了展望. 我们认为随着对光伏器件效率要求越来越高, 基于钙钛矿/晶硅叠层结构的三结电池将会成为下一代低成本高效电池的研究热点.
    Double junction tandem solar cells consisting of two absorbers with designed different band gaps show great advantage in breaking the Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency of single junction solar cell by differential absorption of sunlight in a wider range of wavelengths and reducing the thermal loss of photons. Owing to the advantages of adjustable band gap and low cost of perovskite cells, perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells have become a research hotspot in photovoltaics. We systematically review the latest research progress of perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells. Focusing on the structure of perovskite top cells, intermediate interconnection layers and crystalline silicon bottom cells, we summarize the design principles of high-efficiency tandem devices in optical and electrical aspects. We find that the optical and electrical engineering of each layer structure in perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells goes through the whole process of device preparation. We also summarize the challenges of limiting the further improvement of the efficiency of the perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells and the corresponding improvement measures, which covers the following respects: 1) Improving the balance between Voc and Jsc of the broadband perovskite cell through additive engineering and interface engineering; 2) improving the bandgap matching between the electrical layers and reducing the carrier transport barrier through adjusting the work function or conductivity of layers; 3) improving the photocurrent coupling between sub-cells and the photocurrent of tandem solar cells by using light engineering and conformal deposition technology of perovskite cells. At present, there have been many technologies to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells, such as additive engineering and interface engineering, but the problem has hardly been solved. Therefore, improving the stability of broadband gap perovskite solar cells to the level of crystalline silicon solar cells will become an important challenge to limit its large-scale application. In terms of efficiency, the mass production efficiency of perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells is far lower than that of the laboratory level. One of the reasons is that it is difficult to achieve low-cost and deposition of uniform large area perovskite solar cells. Therefore improving the stability of broadband gap perovskite solar cells and developing low-cost large-area perovskite deposition technology will become extremely critical. Finally we look forward to the next generation of higher efficient low-cost tandem solar cells. We believe that with the increasing demand for higher efficiency photovoltaic devices, the triple junction solar cells based on the perovskite/crystalline silicon stack structure will become the future photovoltaics.
      通信作者: 张美荣, zhangmeirong2022@gusulab.ac.cn ; 周大勇, zhoudayong2021@gusulab.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 江苏省碳达峰碳中和科技创新专项资金(产业前瞻与关键核心技术攻关项目)(批准号: BE2022021)和苏州市碳达峰碳中和科技支撑项目(批准号: ST202219)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Mei-Rong, zhangmeirong2022@gusulab.ac.cn ; Zhou Da-Yong, zhoudayong2021@gusulab.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Special Fund for the “Dual Carbon” Science and Technology Innovation of Jiangsu Province, China (Industrial Prospect and Key Technology Research program) (Grant No. BE2022021) and the “Dual Carbon” Science and Technology Innovation of Suzhou, China (Grant No. ST202219).
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  • 图 1  (a) TSC对太阳光谱吸收情况; (b)单结和多结太阳能电池工作原则[5]; (c)双结TSC理论PCE

    Fig. 1.  (a) Absorption spectrum for TSC; (b) working principle for a single junction and multi-junction solar cells [5]; (c) theoretical PCEs for two junction TSC.

    图 2  (a) Voc和(b) JscABX3带隙变化分布[23]

    Fig. 2.  (a) Voc and (b) Jsc as function of band gap or onset of absorption [23].

    图 3  (a)最优TSC的J-V曲线和稳态PCE (插图), 有效面积为16 cm2; (b)最优TSC的EQE曲线; 基于(c)新型和(d)传统金属栅线模拟电池的Voc降低[27]

    Fig. 3.  (a) J-V curve and in the inset steady-state PCE of TSC on 16 cm2; (b) EQE for the corresponding device; simulated voltage drops across the cell with (c) new and (d) old metal grid design [27].

    图 4  (a)半透明PSCs结构示意图; (b) TSC的EQE曲线[28]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Cross sectional SEM image of the perovskite/Si two-terminal tandem device; (b) external quantum efficiency of tandem device [28].

    图 5  (a)有效面积为1 cm2的钙钛矿/硅TSC结构示意图和横截面SEM图; 最优电池的(b)光照/暗态J-V曲线和MPP点跟踪PCE(插图); (c)EQE曲线[30]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Schematic of tandem structure (not to scale) and cross-sectional SEM image; (b) light/dark J-V curves and MPP tracking (inset) and (c) EQE spectra of the champion tandem [30].

    图 6  (a) TSC结构示意图; Eg为1.68 eV的钙钛矿沉积在不同HTL上的(b)准费米能级裂分值和(c)认证的J-V曲线, 包括MPP效率和电性能参数[35]

    Fig. 6.  (a) Schematic stack of the perovskite/silicon TSC; (b) quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) values of 1.68 eV bandgap perovskite films on different substrate; (c) certified J-V curve including the MPP value and the device parameters[35].

    图 7  (a) PSCs各组分能级排列; (b)含有不同HTL的PSCs的J-V曲线[36]

    Fig. 7.  (a) Relative energy levels of the various device components in the perovskite solar cells; (b) J-V curves of the perovskite solar cells with various hole transport layers [36].

    图 8  (a) n-i-p结构和(b)p-i-n结构TSCs 结构示意图; (c)和(d)相应的吸收反射光谱[39]

    Fig. 8.  Perovskite/SHJ TSC structures with (a) n-i-p and (b) p-i-n; absorption and reflection spectra of optimized TSCs for the (c) regular architecture and (d) inverted architecture [39].

    图 9  钙钛矿/晶硅TSC的(a)结构示意图和(b) J-V曲线[26]; (c)钙钛矿/HJTTSC结构示意图; (d) 材料的折射率(n)对比; 1.1 cm2的最优电池的(e) J-V曲线和(f) EQE曲线[40]

    Fig. 9.  (a) Schematic and (b) J-V curve of tandem cell[26]; (c) schematic of tandem cell; (d) the sequence of refractive indices in the cell stack; (e) J-V curve; (f) EQE curves of the champion tandem cell (1.1 cm2) [40].

    图 10  (a)全绒面TSC结构示意图; (b)钙钛矿顶电池截面的二次电子SEM图[42]; (c)全绒面TSC结构和N2辅助刮涂示意图; (d) N2辅助刮涂PTAA的SEM图[44]; (e)正弦纳米结构互联界面SEM图; (f)正弦纳米结构互联TSC的QE曲线[45]

    Fig. 10.  (a) Schematic view of a fully textured TSC; (b) secondary electron SEM image of a cross section of the perovskite top cell [42]; (c) schematic view of a fully textured TSC and N2-assisted blade coating; (d) SEM images of PTAA by N2-assisted blade coating [44]; (e) SEM of sinusoidal nanostructured interconnection; (f) QE curve of TSC with sinusoidally nanostructured [45].

    图 11  (a)界面复合模型; (b)隧道复合模型[47]

    Fig. 11.  (a) Interface composite model; (b) tunnel composite model [47].

    图 12  (a)钙钛矿/HIT TSC结构示意图; (b) ITO/玻璃基底和nc-Si:H/玻璃基底的吸收光谱; (c)具有不同互联层的TSC的反射光谱[48]

    Fig. 12.  (a) Schematic view of perovskite/SHJ TSC; (b) absorptance of ITO/glass and nc-Si:H/glass; (c) reflectance of TSC with different interconnect layer [48].

    图 13  (a)无互联层的TSC结构示意图; (b)不同p++掺杂浓度拟合出的SnO2/p++界面的暗态J-V曲线, 插图为界面存在SiO2时的能带示意图; 16 cm2的最优TSC的(c)J-V曲线, 插图为稳态PCE曲线和(d)EQE曲线和吸收光谱[49]

    Fig. 13.  (a) Schematic device design of interface-layer-free TSC. (b) simulated dark J-V curves for the SnO2/p++ silicon interface with varied p++ doping concentration. Inset is corresponding band diagram with native SiO2. (c) J-V curve and the steady-state PCE in the inset and (d) EQE and the total absorbance for the champion tandem device on 16 cm2 [49]

    表 1  高效率钙钛矿/晶硅叠层电池性能

    Table 1.  Performance of high efficiency perovskite/c-Si solar cells.

    Device structureSi cellICsPerovskiteBandgapETLHTLArea/PCE/Jsc/Voc/FF/Ref.
    /eVcm2%(mA·cm–2)V%
    n-i-pn-BSFn++/p++ a-Si:HCH3NH3PbI31.61TiO2Spiro-OMeTAD113.711.51.5875[9]
    n-i-pn- PERCITOCs0.07Rb0.03FA0.765MA0.135Pb-(I0.85Br0.15)31.62TiO2Spiro-OMeTAD122.817.61.7573.8[26]
    n-i-pn-PERC(FAPbI3)0.83(MAPbBr3)0.171.59SnO2Spiro-OMeTAD1621.916.21.7478[27]
    n-i-pn-HJTITOFA 0.5MA0.38Cs0.12PbI2.04Br0.961.69SnO2Spiro-OMeTAD0.0622.216.51.65581.1[28]
    n-i-pn-HJTn+/p+nc-Si:HCs0.19FA0.81Pb-(I0.78Br0.22)31.63C60Spiro-OMeTAD0.2522.716.81.75177.1[48]
    n-i-pn-PERCCH3NH3PbI3SnO2Spiro-OMeTAD1615.615.51.65961[49]
    p-i-nHJTn+/p+nc-Si:HCsxFA1–xPb(I Br)3C60/SnO2Spiro-TTB1.4225.5219.51.78873.1[42]
    p-i-nn-HJTITOCs0.15(FA0.83MA0.17)0.85Pb(I0.7Br0.3)31.64C60/SnO2PTAA0.4925.417.81.819.4[29]
    p-i-np-BSFITO(FAMAPbI3)0.8(MAPbBr3)0.21.64PCBMPTAA0.2721.0216.131.64579.23[36]
    p-i-nHJTInOxCs0.05MA0.15FA0.8PbI2.25Br0.751.68C60/SnOxNiOx0.8322619.81.777[37]
    p-i-nn-HJTITOCs0.05(FA0.83MA0.17)0.95Pb(I1–xBrx)31.63PC61BMF4-TCNQ doped polyTPD and NPD1.08825.319.021.79374.3[40]
    p-i-nHJTITOCs0.25FA0.75Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3+MAPbCl31.67C60/SnOPolyTPD/NiOx127.1319.121.88675.3[30]
    p-i-nn-HJTITOCs0.05(FA0.77MA0.23)0.95Pb(I0.77Br0.23)31.68C60Me-4PACz(SAM)1.06429.1519.261.979.52[35]
    p-i-nn-HJTITOCs0.1MA0.9Pb(I0.9Br0.1)3C60/SnO2PTAA0.0492619.21.8274.4[44]
    p-i-nn-HJTn+/p+nc-Si:HFA0.9Cs0.1PbI2.87Br0.131.63C60/SnO2Spiro-TTB0.509127.4819.781.8876.85[46]
    p-i-nn-TOPConITOCs0.22FA0.78Pb(Cl0.03 Br0.15I0.85)3C60/SnO2NiOx127.6319.681.79478.27[41]
    下载: 导出CSV
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    Yu Z S J, Carpenter J V, Holman Z C 2018 Nat. Energy 3 747Google Scholar

    [2]

    Song Z N, McElvany C L, Phillips A B, Celik I, Krantz P W, Watthage S C, Liyanage G K, Apul D, Heben M J 2017 Energy Environ. Sci. 10 1297Google Scholar

    [3]

    Gu W B, Ma T, Li M, Shen L, Zhang Y J 2020 Appl. Energy 258 114075Google Scholar

    [4]

    Meier J, Flückiger R, Keppner H, Shah A 1994 Appl. Phys. Lett. 5 860

    [5]

    Li H, Zhang W 2020 Chem. Rev. 120 9835Google Scholar

    [6]

    Wang S L, Wang P Y, Chen B B, Li R J, Ren N Y, Li Y C, Shi B, Huang Q, Zhao Y, Grätzel M, Zhang X D 2022 eScience 2 339Google Scholar

    [7]

    Yadav C, Kumar S 2022 Opt. Mater. 123 111847Google Scholar

    [8]

    Zhao D W, Wang C L, Song Z N, Yu Y, Chen C, Zhao X Z, Zhu K, Yan Y F 2018 ACS Energy Lett. 3 305Google Scholar

    [9]

    Mailoa J P, Bailie C D, Johlin E C, Hoke E T, Akey A J, Nguyen W H, McGehee M D, Buonassisi T 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 121105Google Scholar

    [10]

    NREL Best Research-Cell Efficiencies. https//www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.html.

    [11]

    Prasanna R, Gold-Parker A, Leijtens T, Conings B, Babayigit A, Boyen H G, Toney M F, McGehee M D 2017 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 11117Google Scholar

    [12]

    Leijtens T, Bush K A, Prasanna R, McGehee M D 2018 Nat. Energy 3 828Google Scholar

    [13]

    Jacobsson T J, Correa-Baena J P, Pazoki M, Saliba M, Schenk K, Grätzel M, Hagfeldt A 2016 Energy Environ. Sci. 9 1706Google Scholar

    [14]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-10-21
  • 修回日期:  2022-12-09
  • 上网日期:  2023-01-05
  • 刊出日期:  2023-03-05

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