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高温高压下金刚石大单晶研究进展

尤悦 李尚升 宿太超 胡美华 胡强 王君卓 高广进 郭明明 聂媛

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高温高压下金刚石大单晶研究进展

尤悦, 李尚升, 宿太超, 胡美华, 胡强, 王君卓, 高广进, 郭明明, 聂媛

Research progress of large diamond single crystals under high pressure and high temperature

You Yue, Li Shang-Sheng, Su Tai-Chao, Hu Mei-Hua, Hu Qiang, Wang Jun-Zhuo, Gao Guang-Jin, Guo Ming-Ming, Nie Yuan
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  • 金刚石具有一系列优于其他材料的极限特性, 应用领域十分广泛. 金刚石大单晶更能充分发挥其功能特性, 从而成为国内外研究的热点. 为此, 本文在介绍金刚石大单晶高温高压合成原理及工艺技术的基础上, 重点综述了四种类型的金刚石大单晶以及掺杂金刚石大单晶的研究现状和研究重点. Ia型金刚石大单晶可由Ib型金刚石通过高温高压退火处理得到, 其中氮的转变机制及效率研究十分重要; 对Ib型金刚石大单晶的表面分析表征、晶体缺陷控制、再结晶石墨析出、多晶种法批量化生产方面进行了综述; 对IIa型金刚石大单晶中除氮剂和触媒的选择、微晶石墨析出与抑制方面的研究进行了介绍; 研究了IIb型金刚石中硼元素的扇区存在及其对合成金刚石生长特性的影响; 掺杂金刚石大单晶主要从B, N, S, P等不同掺杂元素的不同掺杂源或与硼等协同掺杂的研究状况进行了介绍. 并提出金刚石大单晶需要在Ib及IIa型的批量化、IIb型的超导特性、掺杂n型半导体方面加强研究.
    Diamond has a series of extreme characteristics superior to other materials, and also very wide application scope. The large diamond single crystal can play a role in its functional characteristics, which has become a research hotspot. In this paper, we introduce the principle and process of synthesizing large diamond single crystal by temperature gradient method (TGM) under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT), and summarizes the research status and research directions of different types of and additives-doped large diamond single crystals respectively. The principle of the temperature gradient method is that the carbon source, driven by the temperature gradient, diffuses from the high concentration region at the high temperature end to the low concentration region at the low temperature end, and diamonds are grown on the seed crystal. The growth rate of diamond crystal is controlled by adjusting the axial temperature gradient at synthesis cell, and the shape growth of Ib-type large diamond is controlled by the distribution in the V-shaped growth area. We introduce different kinds of diamond large single crystals from five aspects. Firstly, the Ia-type diamond large single crystal can be obtained by the annealing treatment of Ib-type diamond under HPHT. The conversion rate of C centre to A centre for nitrogen in diamond is improved by optimizing the conditions of HPHT. Secondly, the Ib-type larger diamond is studied very much in the following areas: the analysis of its surface characteristic, the control of inclusions and cracks, the precipitation mechanism and the elimination measures of regrown graphite and the mass production technology of multiseed method. Thirdly, IIa-type large diamond single crystal is introduced in which the nitrogen getter is selected due to the ability Al and Ti (Cu) to getter nitrogen, the catalyst is selected because of its effect on the nitrogen content in the diamond synthesized with Fe or Ni based catalyst, and the elimination method of microcrystalline graphite precipitation is presented by analyzing its mechanism. Fourthly, the boron elements exist in IIb-type diamond and have influence on the growth characteristics of synthetic diamond. Fifthly, introduced is the research status of diamond synthesized with B, N, S, P doping elements, in which its individual substance or their compound is used as a doping source or boron and other elements with small radius are used as co-doping agent. Then S or P with B co-doping is more conducive to the improvement of the performance of n-type diamond large single crystal semiconductor. Therefore, it is proposed that the large diamond single crystal need strengthening in mass production of IIa-type large diamond single crystal, superconducting characteristics of IIb-type large diamond single crystal, and doping of n-type semiconductors.
      通信作者: 李尚升, lishsh@hpu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 河南省自然科学基金(批准号: 182300410279)、河南省科技攻关项目(批准号: 182102210311)、河南省高校重点科研项目(批准号: 18A430017)、河南省高等学校青年骨干教师培养计划(批准号: 2018GGJS057)和河南省高校科技创新团队(批准号: 19IRTSTHN027)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Li Shang-Sheng, lishsh@hpu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 182300410279), the Key Science and Technology Program of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 182102210311), the Key Scientific Research Project in Colleges and Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 18A430017), the Young Core Instructor Training Program of Higher Education of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 2018GGJS057), and the Science and Technology Innovation Team in Colleges and Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 19IRTSTHN027)
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  • 图 1  TGM原理示意图

    Fig. 1.  Schematic diagram of temperature gradient method

    图 2  金刚石晶体生长不同阶段的温度场分布 (a) 0.5 h; (b) 6.5 h; (c) 10.0 h; (d) 13.0 h; (e) 17.5 h; (f) 23.0 h[23]

    Fig. 2.  Distribution of temperature field in different stages of diamond crystal growth: (a) 0.5 h; (b) 6.5 h; (c) 10.0 h; (d) 13.0 h; (e) 17.5 h; (f) 23.0 h[23].

    图 3  三种不同高度触媒的对流场分布 (a) 2.0 mm; (b) 2.4 mm; (c) 2.8 mm[25]

    Fig. 3.  Distributions of convection field of the catalyst with three different heights: (a) 2.0 mm; (b) 2.4 mm; (c) 2.8 mm[25].

    图 4  不同尺寸籽晶生长优质金刚石单晶的极限生长速度与合成时间关系曲线 (a) 0.8 mm; (b) 1.5 mm; (c) 2.2 mm[32]

    Fig. 4.  Curves between the limit growth rate and the synthesis time of the high quality diamonds with different diameters of the seed-crystals: (a) 0.8 mm; (b) 1.5 mm; (c) 2.2 mm[32].

    图 5  不同生长面生长的金刚石大单晶的V形生长区示意图[37]

    Fig. 5.  Schematic diagram of the V-shaped growth region of large diamond single crystals grown on different growth surfaces[37].

    图 6  A中心(左)、B中心(中)和C中心(右)示意图, 氮原子以黑色、碳以白色、空位以虚线圆圈表示[41]

    Fig. 6.  Schematics of A-centre(left), B-centre(middle), C-centre (right)[41].

    图 7  不同温度下合成Ib型金刚石大单晶表面中心及棱角处显微照片[44] (a), (a') 1250 ℃; (b), (b') 1280 ℃, (c), (c') 1310 ℃

    Fig. 7.  The microscopic photographs of surface centers and angularities of type Ib single crystal diamond synthesized at different temperatures[44]: (a), (a') 1250 ℃; (b),(b') 1280 ℃, (c), (c') 1310 ℃

    图 8  金刚石NV色心介绍 (a) 金刚石中的NV色心原子结构; (b) NV色心的能级示意图[46]

    Fig. 8.  Introduction of the NV center in diamond: (a) Schematic of the NV center structure in diamond; (b) energy level diagram of NV[46]

    图 9  再结晶石墨析出原理示意图[53]

    Fig. 9.  Formation mechanism schematic diagram of regrown graphite [53].

    图 10  样品腔体组装图(左半部分)和腔体温度分布图及放大图(右半部分)[57] (a) 传统CHPA样品腔体组装图; (b) 新型CHPA样品腔体组装图

    Fig. 10.  Plots of the sample cell assembly (in the left half) and the distributions of cell temperature as well as the enlarged figure (in the right half) [57]: (a) The sample cell assembly used for the conventional CHPA; (b) the sample cell assembly used for the novel CHPA.

    图 11  生长IIa型金刚石黑色石墨粉末SEM图[63]

    Fig. 11.  The SEM photo of black powder at growing type IIa diamond[63].

    图 12  金刚石掺杂元素分类

    Fig. 12.  Diamond doped element classification.

    图 13  氮源重量比为0.1%的合成孪晶金刚石的光学图像 (a) 1513 K; (b) 1553 K[73]

    Fig. 13.  Optical image of diamond synthesized with N source weight percent of 0.1%: (a) 1513 K; (b) 1553 K[73].

    图 14  金刚石中B-O杂质态理论 (a) B3O和(b)B4O化合物的优化结构(左上)和电子定位功能等值面(左下). 为了清楚起见, 仅示出结构图中的B和O原子相邻的C原子. 蓝色、红色和黑色球体分别对应于B, O和C原子. B3O和B4O金刚石的计算带结构和PDOS分别在右侧图中显示[89]

    Fig. 14.  Theoretical results of B-O impurity states in diamond. Optimized structures (upper left) and electron localization function isosurfaces (lower left) for (a) B3O and (b) B4O complexes. Only the C atoms adjacent to the B and O atoms in the structure pictures are illustrated for clarity. The blue, red, and black spheres correspond to B, O, and C atoms, respectively. The calculated band structures and PDOS for B3O and B4O diamond are shown in right, respectively[89].

    表 1  不同触媒和除氮剂组合的使用效果

    Table 1.  Effect of different catalysts and nitrogen getter.

    合金触媒除氮剂除氮效果晶体质量
    FeNiCoTi[59]氮含量明显减少, 除氮效果好, 很难得到优质IIa型金刚石金刚石晶体中存在夹杂物和表面蚀坑
    Ti/Cu[15]氮含量小于1 ppm, 除氮效果好优质IIa型金刚石
    NiMnCoAl[58]Al和N存在可逆反应, 除氮效果不好, 很难得到IIa型金刚石金刚石晶体中存在夹杂物和表面蚀坑
    Ti/Cu[15]氮含量小于1 ppm, 除氮效果好优质IIa型金刚石
    FeCoTi[61]氮含量明显减少, 除氮效果好, 很难得到优质IIa型金刚石表面出现夹杂物
    Zr[61]氮含量明显减少除氮效果好需要严格控制其生长速度
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  金刚石不同掺杂元素电学性能

    Table 2.  Electrical properties of different doped elements in diamond.

    掺杂元素P[83]Mn3P2[84]S[78]FeS[79]NiS[80]B-FeS[82]B-S[79]
    掺杂方式替位式替位式替位式替位式替位式替位式替位式
    半径大小rC < rPrC < rPrC < rSrC < rSrC < rSrC > rB
    rC < rS
    rC > rB
    rC < rS
    最小电阻率/106 Ω·cm3.5600.5160.9630.8131.1630.0960.933
    特性n型n型n型n型n型n型n(p)型
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-09
  • 修回日期:  2020-07-13
  • 上网日期:  2020-11-27
  • 刊出日期:  2020-12-05

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