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钙钛矿太阳能电池中缺陷及其钝化策略研究进展

王成麟 张左林 朱云飞 赵雪帆 宋宏伟 陈聪

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钙钛矿太阳能电池中缺陷及其钝化策略研究进展

王成麟, 张左林, 朱云飞, 赵雪帆, 宋宏伟, 陈聪

Progress of defect and defect passivation in perovskite solar cells

Wang Cheng-Lin, Zhang Zuo-Lin, Zhu Yun-Fei, Zhao Xue-Fan, Song Hong-Wei, Chen Cong
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  • 钙钛矿太阳能电池因其优异的光电性能成为了目前研究热点, 但是目前广泛采用的钙钛矿多晶离子晶体薄膜多是基于溶液处理工艺制备的, 这不可避免地会在薄膜结晶过程中产生高密度缺陷, 其中包括点缺陷和扩展缺陷, 又可分为浅能级缺陷和深能级缺陷两类. 多种类型的缺陷是导致器件内部发生严重非辐射复合的主要原因, 进而限制太阳能电池器件光伏特性和稳定性的提升. 本文综述了钙钛矿晶体薄膜缺陷钝化策略的最新进展, 具体包括路易斯酸、路易斯碱、阴阳离子和宽带隙表面修饰策略, 并详细阐述了多种策略对钙钛矿表/界面缺陷的调控机理钝化效果. 同时探讨了晶体缺陷与器件稳定性的内在联系, 并对未来研究中缺陷钝化策略的可行性方案进行了展望.
    Research on perovskite solar cells is prevalent because of their excellent photovoltaic performance. Most of the perovskite films are prepared by polycrystalline perovskite films and low-temperature solution method, thus inevitably creating a high density of defects, including point defects and extended defects. These defects can also be divided into two types: shallow-level defects and deep-level defects. The multiple types of defects are the main cause of nonradiative recombination, which will limit the enhancement of photovoltaic properties and stability of solar cell devices. In this paper, we review the latest advances in defect passivation and describe in detail the mechanisms of different methods to passivate defects at the surface and interface of perovskite films to reduce nonradiative recombination. We also summarize the research results about the defect passivation to reduce the deep energy level traps by Lewis acid and base, anion and cation, and the results about the conversion of defects into wide band gap materials as well. The effects of various strategies to modulate the mechanism of passivation of perovskite surface/interface defects are also elaborated. In addition, we discuss the intrinsic link between crystal defects and device stability, and provide an outlook on the feasibility of defect passivation strategies in future research.
      通信作者: 宋宏伟, songhw@jlu.edu.cn
      Corresponding author: Song Hong-Wei, songhw@jlu.edu.cn
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  • 图 1  (a)三维钙钛矿结构示意图[25]; (b)双钙钛矿结构示意图, 其中两种二价金属M2+(Ge2+, Sn2+, Pb2+等)被单价M+ (Na+, K+, Rb+, Cu+, Ag+等)和三价的金属M3+ (Sb3+, Bi3+等)组合取代[23]; (c)二维钙钛矿结构示意图[25]; (d)正置型PSCs结构示意图; (e)倒置型PSCs结构示意图

    Fig. 1.  (a) Schematic illustration of 3D perovskite structure; (b) schematic showing the perovskite structure with two divalent metals (M2+: Ge2+, Sn2+, Pb2+) replaced by a combination of monovalent (M+: Na+, K+, Rb+, Cu+, Ag+) and trivalent (M3+: Sb3+, Bi3+) metals; (c) schematic illustration of 2D perovskite structure; (d) schematic illustration of normal planar; (e) schematic illustration of inverted planar PSCs.

    图 2  缺陷类型 (a)完美晶体结构; (b)空位缺陷;(c)间隙缺陷; (d)反位缺陷; (e)反位杂质缺陷; (f)间隙杂质缺陷

    Fig. 2.  Types of defects: (a) Perfect crystal structure; (b) vacancy defects; (c) interstitial defects; (d) antisite defects; (e) antisite impurity defects; (f) interstitial impurity defects.

    图 3  缺陷钝化机理图, 钙钛矿薄膜中的缺陷及其通过离子键、配位键和转换为宽带隙材料的钝化, 可以通过缺陷钝化抑制晶界处的离子迁移[39]

    Fig. 3.  Schematic illustration of defect passivation mechanism: Imperfections in perovskite films and their passivation by ionic bonding, coordinate bonding, and conversion to wide bandgap materials. Suppression of ion migration at GBs can be achieved by passivation[39].

    图 4  (a) 具有PCBM层的器件结构[47]; (b) 通过热导纳光谱获得的陷阱态密度 (tDOS)[47]; (c) 钙钛矿薄膜和不同ETL衬底的能带示意图[49]; (d)混合溶液的紫外(UV)-可见光吸收光谱图显示PCBM和钙钛矿离子之间的相互作用[51]; (e)卤化物(X)通过碘五氟苯在过氧化物表面的卤素键络合而产生的静电屏蔽示图[52]; (f)通过低配位卤化物和空穴之间的静电相互作用捕获电荷[52]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Device structure with PCBM layer; (b) trap density of states (tDOS) obtained by thermal conductivity spectroscopy; (c) schematic diagram of the energy bands of perovskite films and different ETL substrates; (d) the ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra of the mixed solutions show the interaction between PCBM and perovskite ions; (e) illustration of the electrostatic screening of the halide (X) via halogen bond complexation of Iodopentafluorobenzene on the perovskite surface; (f) charge trapping by electrostatic interactions between the undercoordinated halide and the hole.

    图 5  (a)路易斯酸(A)-碱(B)反应形成具有配位键的加合物(A·B). 路易斯碱具有氧供体(O-donor)、硫供体(S-donor)、氮供体(N-donor)[54]. (b) 有/无DMSO辅助结晶的钙钛矿薄膜SEM图[54]. (c)噻吩(或吡啶)分子通过提供电子与 Pb2+ 作用, 中和多余的正电荷[55]. (d) 11 MA钝化机理图[61]. (e)经三辛基氧膦(TOPO, 红色)、1-十八烷基硫醇(ODT, 橙色)和三苯基膦(PPh3, 蓝色)处理的薄膜的时间分辨光致发光衰减线[62]. (f)标样和经TOPO, ODT, PPh3处理薄膜的综合发光强度统计[62]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Lewis acid (A)–base (B) reaction to form an adduct (A·B) with a dative bond. Lewis bases with oxygen donor (O-donor), sulfur donor (S-donor), and nitrogen donor (N-donor). (b) SEM image of perovskite films with/without DMSO-assisted crystallization. (c) The thiophene (or pyridine) molecule neutralizes the excess positive charge by providing electrons to coordinate with Pb2+. (d) Schematic illustration of 11 MA passivation mechanism. (e) Time-resolved photoluminescence decay lines of films treated with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO, red), 1-octadecylthiol (ODT, orange), and triphenylphosphine (PPh3, blue). (f) The integrated luminescence intensity statistics of the control samples and the films treated with TOPO, ODT and PPh3.

    图 6  (a) 钾离子含量增加的 KI 钝化钙钛矿薄膜的 PLQE图[68]; (b) 薄膜横截面示意图, 显示在过量卤化物的情况下卤化物空位调控, 其中多余的卤化物通过与钾络合在晶界和表面形成良性化合物而被固定[68]; (c) 草酸锌钝化机理图[69]

    Fig. 6.  (a) PLQE of KI passivated perovskite film with increased potassium ion content; (b) schematic cross-section of the film showing halide vacancy modulation in the presence of excess halide, where the excess halide is immobilized by complexation with potassium to form benign compounds at grain boundaries and surfaces; (c) schematic illustration of the passivation mechanism of zinc oxalate.

    图 7  (a) 掺入不同浓度的NH4BF4(001)和(012)晶面的放大XRD图谱[85]; (b)原始钙钛矿薄膜SEM图像[84]; (c)掺入SCN离子后钙钛矿薄膜的SEM图像[84]; (d) I和PF${}_6^- $之间的离子交换反应形成的上层FA0.88Cs0.12PbI3–x(PF6)x钙钛矿薄膜的制备过程示意图[86] ; (e)原始钙钛矿薄膜SEM图像[86]; (f)用1 mg/ml的FAPF6后处理的钙钛矿SEM图像[86]

    Fig. 7.  (a) XRD patterns of (FAPbI3)0.83(MAPbBr3)0.17 with different molar ratio of NH4BF4; (b) SEM image of control perovskite films; (c) SEM images of the perovskite films after doping with SCN ions; (d) schematic illustration of preparation process of upper layer perovskite film FA0.88Cs0.12PbI3–x(PF6)x formed via ion exchange reaction between I and PF${}_6^- $; (e) SEM image of the control perovskite film; (f) SEM image of perovskite post-treated with 1 mg/ml of FAPF6.

    图 8  (a)两性离子液体功能添加剂材料的化学结构[96]; (b)两步法制备多晶体钙钛矿薄膜的工艺[96]; (c)两性离子液体功能添加剂材料改善太阳能电池性能和稳定性的机理图[96]; (d)有无组合钝化策略晶体生长示意图[102]

    Fig. 8.  (a) Chemical structure of ZIL; (b) two-step process for the preparation of polycrystalline perovskite films; (c) mechanistic diagram of ZIL for improving the performance and stability of solar cells; (d) schematic diagram of crystal growth with and without combined passivation strategy.

    图 9  通过I型对齐减少载流子复合. (a)—(c) PbI2钝化: (a) SEM示意图[103]; (b) 结构示意图[103]; (c) MAPbI3薄膜的能带排列, PbI2包裹钙钛矿颗粒[103]. (d) 分层/3D钙钛矿异质结构示意图[76]

    Fig. 9.  Reduction of carrier recombination by type-I alignment. (a)–(c) PbI2 passivation: (a) SEM, (b) schematic illustration, and (c) band alignment of MAPbI3 film with PbI2 wrapping the perovskite grain. (d) Schematic illustration of the layered/3D perovskite heterostructure.

    图 10  (a) 硫酸甲胺的分子结构图[106]; (b)引入硫酸甲胺调节钙钛矿吸光层的湿度稳定性[106]; (c) MS钝化机理图[106]; (d) CH3NH3PbI3/PbSO4(PbO)4界面间键合作用[107]; (e)CH3NH3PbI3/PbSO4(PbO)4薄膜中的空穴和电子波函数分布[107]

    Fig. 10.  (a) Molecular structure of methylamine sulfate; (b) modulation of the humidity stability of the perovskite absorbing layer by methylamine sulfate; (c) mechanism diagram of methylamine sulfate passivation;(d) CH3NH3PbI3/PbSO4(PbO)4 interfacial bonding interaction; (e) the hole and electron wave function distributions in the CH3NH3PbI3/ PbSO4(PbO)4 film.

    图 11  未来调控PSCs中晶体缺陷的可行性策略 (a)多功能协同钝化策略机理图[108]; (b)使用STEM-HAADF表征金属卤化物钙钛矿的精细原子结构[109]; (c)对钙钛矿粉末进行预处理而后再溶解制备出低缺陷密度钙钛矿薄膜[110]

    Fig. 11.  Potential optimization strategies of PSCs: (a) Schematic diagram of the multifunctional synergistic passivation strategy; (b) characterization of the fine atomic structure of metal halide perovskite by using STEM-HAADF; (c) pre-treatment of perovskite powder followed by dissolution to prepare low defect density perovskite film.

    表 1  基于SCN钝化的钙钛矿薄膜的PSCs的光伏参数

    Table 1.  Photovoltaic parameters of PSCs with SCN passivated of perovskite films.

    DeviceJSC/
    (mA·cm–2)
    (C/T)
    VOC/V
    (C/T)
    FF(C/T)效率(C/T)Ref.
    ITO/PEDOT:PSS/FA0.8GA0.2SnI3/PHSCN/C60/BCP/Ag21.1/21.90.645/0.8176.3/7610.6/13.5[87]
    ITO/PEDOT:PSS/FA0.55MA0.45Sn0.55Pb0.45I3(SnF2 and Pb(SCN)2)/C60/BCP/Ag11.4/28.90.54/0.7638.6/82.32.4/18.1[88]
    ITO/PEDOT:PSS/FA0.7MA0.2Cs0.1Pb(I5/6Br1/6)3(Pb(SCN)2)/
    PCBM/Bphen/Al
    6.98/18.211.10/1.0671.87/72.975.52/14.09[89]
    FTO/TiO2/FAPbI3(NH4SCN)/Spiro-OMeTAD/MoO3/Ag17.52/17.880.74/0.9346.83/68.755.94/11.44[90]
    ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3(Pb(SCN)2)/PCBM/Ca/Al9.49/15.410.83/0.8172.93/79.696.08/9.91[91]
    FTO/TiO2/MAPbI3(MASCN)/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au8.78/22.290.638/1.06436.48/76.832.04/18.22[92]
    ITO/SnO2/MA0.6FA0.4PbIxBr1–x(Pb(SCN)2)/Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag21.86/23.161.03/1.1275.76/75.2617.13/19.64[84]
    ITO/PEDOT:PSS/(PEA)2(MA)4Pb6I16(NH4SCN)/PC61BM/BCP/Ag0.93/15.011.02/1.1159/630.56/11.01[93]
    ITO/PEDOT:PSS/(BA)2(MA)2Pb3I10(NH4SCN)/PC61BM/BCP/Ag3.16/12.790.93/0.9743/551.31/6.89[94]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  基于BF4或PF6钝化的钙钛矿薄膜的钙钛矿太阳能电池的光伏参数

    Table 2.  Photovoltaic parameters of PSCs with BF4 or PF6 passivated of perovskite films.

    DeviceJSC/
    (mA·cm–2
    (C/T)
    VOC/V
    (C/T)
    FF(C/T)效率(C/T)Ref.
    FTO/TiO2/MApbI3(MABF4)/ZrO4/Carbon16.92/18.150.914/0.9570.68/0.7610.54/13.24[95]
    ITO/SnO2/(FAPbI3)0.83(MAPbBr)0.17(NH4BF4)/ Spiro-OMeTAD/MoO3/Ag23.39/23.381.12/1.150.67/0.7517.55/20.16[85]
    ITO/SnO2/(FAPbI3)1–x(MAPbBr3)x(4FBBF4) /Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag24.00/24.851.130/1.1620.76/0.7820.69/22.52[96]
    FTO/bl-TiO2/mp-TiO2/FA0.88Cs0.12PbI3/(FAPF6)/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au23.00/23.111.020/1.0450.76/0.8017.79/19.25[86]
    ITO/SnO2/KPF6/FA0.88Cs0.12PbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au22.38/22/831.100/1.1450. 80/0.8219.66/21.39[97]
    FTO/SnO2 QD/KPF6/(CsI)0.04(FAI)0.82(PbI2)0.86(MAPbBr3)0.14/
    Spiro-OMeTAD/Au
    21.60/23.151.072/1.120.74/0.8117.04/21.05[98]
    FTO/TiO2/[EMIM]PF6–IL/CH3NH3I/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au
    ITO/SnO2/ Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3/
    Spiro-OMeTAD(LiPF6)/Au
    19.30/23.52
    22.59/23.78
    1.07/1.09
    1.06/1.10
    0.66/0.71
    0.78/0.79
    14.20/18.42
    19.04/20.78
    [99]
    [100]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-01
  • 修回日期:  2022-04-09
  • 上网日期:  2022-08-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-20

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