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利用样品阱实现太赫兹超材料的超微量传感

向星诚 马海贝 王磊 田达 张伟 张彩虹 吴敬波 范克彬 金飚兵 陈健 吴培亨

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利用样品阱实现太赫兹超材料的超微量传感

向星诚, 马海贝, 王磊, 田达, 张伟, 张彩虹, 吴敬波, 范克彬, 金飚兵, 陈健, 吴培亨

Ultramicro-sensing of terahertz metamaterials implemented by using sample traps

Xiang Xing-Cheng, Ma Hai-Bei, Wang Lei, Tian Da, Zhang Wei, Zhang Cai-Hong, Wu Jing-Bo, Fan Ke-Bin, Jin Biao-Bing, Chen Jian, Wu Pei-Heng
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  • 提出了一种基于太赫兹(terahertz, THz)类电磁诱导透明(electromagnetically induced transpanrency like, EIT-like) 效应的样品阱超材料传感器. 传感器基础单元结构由一根金属线和一对开口谐振环(split ring resonators, SRRs)组成, 二者耦合产生类EIT效应, 在1.067 THz处得到一个半高全宽为178 GHz的透明峰, 透明峰最大透过率为89.71%. 其传感单位体积灵敏度为$178\;{\rm{G}}{\rm{H}}{\rm{z}}/({\rm{R}}{\rm{I}}{\rm{U}}{\cdot} {{\rm{m}}{\rm{m}}}^{3})$, 进一步分析该超材料谐振频点处的电场分布, 发现两侧SRRs的开口处电场最强. 我们设计构建样品阱仅在开口最强电场处, 以光刻胶为待测物填入样品阱, 并成功测得50 GHz频偏, 验证样品阱结构可以运用于传感中. 经研究分析, 样品阱结构成功将样本量缩减至超微量级别, 单位体积灵敏度提升至$5538\;{\rm{G}}{\rm{H}}{\rm{z}}/({\rm{R}}{\rm{I}}{\rm{U}}{\cdot} {{\rm{m}}{\rm{m}}}^{3})$, 提高了31倍. 该样品阱成功实现对水、人皮肤和大鼠皮肤样本的鉴别, 表明了构建样品阱在THz超材料超微量检测领域具有潜在的应用价值.
    A metamaterial sensor implemented by using sample traps based on terahertz electromagnetically-induced-transparency-like (EIT-like) effect is proposed. The basic unit structure of the sensor is composed of a metal wire and a pair of split ring resonators (SRRs), which are coupled to produce EIT-like effect. The full width at half maximum of transparency peak is 178 GHz obtained at 1.067 THz, and the maximum transmittance of the transparency peak is 89.71%. The sensing characteristics of the structure are studied, and the sensitivity per unit volume is $178\;{\rm{G}}{\rm{H}}{\rm{z}}/({\rm{R}}{\rm{I}}{\rm{U}}{\cdot} {{\rm{m}}{\rm{m}}}^{3})$. The analysis of electric field distribution at the resonant frequency point of the metamaterial indicates that the electric field at the gap of the SRRs on both sides is strongest. Sample traps are constructed at the gap where the electric field is strongest. The photoresist is filled into the sample traps as the object to be measured, and 50 GHz frequency offset is successfully measured, verifying that the sample trap structure can be applied to sensing. With samples placed in the sample traps, the sample volume is reduced to the ultra-micro level, and the sensitivity per unit volume is increased to $5538\;{\rm{G}}{\rm{H}}{\rm{z}}/({\rm{R}}{\rm{I}}{\rm{U}}{\cdot} {{\rm{m}}{\rm{m}}}^{3})$, which is 31 times higher than original one. The successful identification of water, human skin and rat skin samples show that the metamaterial sensor implemented by using sample traps has potential applications in the field of ultra-micro detection.
      通信作者: 张彩虹, chzhang@nju.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2017YFA0700202, 2021YFB2800701)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 62222106, 61871212, 92163216, 62071217, 62027807, 62288101)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(批准号: 021014380195)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Zhang Cai-Hong, chzhang@nju.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2017YFA0700202, 2021YFB2800701), the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 62222106, 61871212, 92163216, 62071217, 62027807, 62288101), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 021014380195).
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  • 图 1  (a) 类EIT超材料单元结构, a = 30 μm, l = 104 μm , g = 2 μm , w = 5 μm , s = 7.5 μm , P = 120 μm; (b)传感示意图, nsam为样本折射率, Hsam为样本厚度; (c)类EIT结构及拆分为金属线和SRRs后的传输谱; (d)传感器频率偏移随折射率变化的曲线, 插图为传感器表面加不同折射率样本时对应的传输谱

    Fig. 1.  (a) Geometry of the unit structure of EIT-like metamaterial, a = 30 μm, l = 104 μm, g = 2 μm, w = 5 μm, s = 7.5 μm, P = 120 μm; (b) schematic diagram of sensing, nsam for sample refractive index, Hsam for sample thickness; (c) transmission spectra of EIT-like structures, wires and SRRs; (d) curve of the frequency shift of the sensor changing with the refractive index, illustrated with the corresponding transmission spectra of different refractive index samples.

    图 2  (a)传感器在1.067 THz处表面场强分布图; (b)样本移动示意图; (c)不同位置处样本对应传输谱

    Fig. 2.  (a) Surface electric field of unit structure at 1.067 THz; (b) schematic diagram of sample movement; (c) corresponding transmission spectra of samples at different locations.

    图 3  (a)不放样品, 整体和局部对应传输谱; (b)右侧放样, 整体和局部对应传输谱; (c)双侧放样, 整体和局部对应传输谱; (d)不同数量样本阱示意图及传输谱, 插图为开口处样本阱3D放大图

    Fig. 3.  (a) Global and local corresponding transmission spectra without sample; (b) global and local corresponding transmission spectra with samples on right sides; (c) global and local corresponding transmission spectra with samples on both sides; (d) schematic diagram and transmission spectra of different number of sample traps, illustrated with 3D enlarged view of the sample trap at the gap.

    图 4  对于样品阱传感器用于超微量传感可行性的验证 (a)空样品阱及填充光刻胶样品阱的单元结构示意图; (b)空样品阱和填充光刻胶样品阱传感器仿真传输谱; (c)带样品阱传感器照片; (d)空样品阱和填充光刻胶样品阱的传感器显微镜照片; (e)利用太赫兹光谱系统测量得到的传感器传输谱

    Fig. 4.  Verification of the feasibility of the sensor with sample traps for ultra-micro sensing: (a) Schematic diagram of unit structure of sensor with empty sample traps and with photoresist-filled sample traps; (b) simulation transmission spectrum of sensor with empty sample traps and with photoresist-filled sample traps; (c) photo of the sensor with sample trap; (d) microscopic photographs of the sensor with empty sample trap and the photoresist filled sample trap; (e) the transmission spectrum of the sensor measured by the terahertz spectrum system.

    图 5  类EIT样品阱传感器的应用 (a) 传感器频率偏移随折射率变化的曲线图, 插图为不同折射率样本的传输谱; (b) 3种不同生物样本作为待测物对应的太赫兹传输谱

    Fig. 5.  Application of EIT-like sensor using sample trap: (a) Curve of the frequency shift of the sensor changing with the refractive index, illustrated with the transmission spectrum of samples with different refractive index; (b) transmission spectrum corresponding to different biological samples.

    表 1  水、人类皮肤和大鼠皮肤的双德拜介电弛豫模型参数及传感结果

    Table 1.  Double Debye dielectric relaxation model parameters and sensing results of water, human skin and rat skin.

    $ {\varepsilon }_{{\rm{\infty }}} $$ {\varepsilon }_{2} $$ {\varepsilon }_{{\rm{s}}} $$ {\tau }_{1}/ $ps$ {\tau }_{2} $/psΔf/GHzΔA/%
    3.54.978.48.20.185231.94
    人类皮肤3.03.660.010.00.204222.09
    大鼠皮肤3.03.660.02.2—5.190.204246.82
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Chen H T, Kersting R, Cho G C 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 3009Google Scholar

    [2]

    Sunaguchi N, Sasaki Y, Maikusa N, Kawai M, Yuasa T, Otani C 2009 Opt. Express 17 9558Google Scholar

    [3]

    彭晓昱, 周欢 2021 物理学报 70 240701Google Scholar

    Peng X Y, Zhou H 2021 Acta Phys. Sin. 70 240701Google Scholar

    [4]

    Arbab M H, Dickey T C, Winebrenner D P, Chen A, Klein M B, Mourad P D 2011 Biomed. Opt. Express 2 2339Google Scholar

    [5]

    Beruete M, Jáuregui-López I 2020 Adv. Opt. Mater. 8 1900721Google Scholar

    [6]

    Kindt J T, Schmuttenmaer C A 1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 10373Google Scholar

    [7]

    Wang Y, Minamide H, Ming T, Notake T, Ito H 2010 Opt. Express 18 15504Google Scholar

    [8]

    Li H, Wan W J, Tan Z Y, Fu Z L, Wang H X, Zhou T, Li Z P, Wang C, Guo X G, Cao J C 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 3452Google Scholar

    [9]

    Sun J D, Zhu Y F, Feng W, et al. 2020 Opt. Express 28 4911Google Scholar

    [10]

    Zhang Y X, Xu G Q, Qiao S, Zhou Y C, Wu Z H, Yang Z Q 2015 J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 48 485105Google Scholar

    [11]

    Duponchel L, Laurette S, Hatirnaz B, Treizebre A, Affouard F, Bocquet B 2013 Chemometrics Intell. Lab. Syst. 123 28Google Scholar

    [12]

    Seo M, Park H R 2020 Adv. Opt. Mater. 8 1900662Google Scholar

    [13]

    李化月, 刘建军, 韩张华, 洪治 2014 光学学报 34 0223003Google Scholar

    Li H Y, Liu J J, Han Z H, Hong Z 2014 Acta Opt. Sin. 34 0223003Google Scholar

    [14]

    Debus C, Bolivar P H 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 184102Google Scholar

    [15]

    Hu X, Xu G Q, Wen L, Wang H C, Zhao Y C, Zhang Y X, Cumming D R S, Chen Q 2016 Laser Photon. Rev. 10 962Google Scholar

    [16]

    Jakšić Z, Vuković S, Matovic J, Tanasković D 2011 Materials 4 1Google Scholar

    [17]

    Zhang X Q, Xu N N, Qu K N, Tian Z, Singh R, Han J G, Agarwal G S, Zhang W L 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 10737Google Scholar

    [18]

    Driscoll T, Andreev G O, Basov D N, Palit S, Cho S Y, Jokerst N M, Smith D R 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 062511Google Scholar

    [19]

    Withayachumnankul W, Lin H, Serita K, et al. 2012 Opt. Express 20 3345Google Scholar

    [20]

    Wu D W, Liu J J, Han H, Han Z H, Hong Z 2015 Front. Optoelectron. 8 68Google Scholar

    [21]

    Zhang C H, Liang L J, Ding L, et al. 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 241105Google Scholar

    [22]

    Zhang R, Chen Q M, Liu K, Chen Z F, Li K D, Zhang X M, Xu J B, Pickwell-MacPherson E 2019 IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 9 209Google Scholar

    [23]

    Zhang X Q, Li Q, Cao W, Gu J Q, Singh R, Tian Z, Han J G, Zhang W L 2012 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19 8400707Google Scholar

    [24]

    Pan W, Yan Y J, Ma Y, Shen D J 2019 Opt. Commun. 431 115Google Scholar

    [25]

    Jing H H, Zhu Z H, Zhang X Q, Gu J Q, Tian Z, Ouyang C M, Han J G, Zhang W L 2013 Sci. China-Inf. Sci. 56 1Google Scholar

    [26]

    Serita K, Matsuda E, Okada K, Murakami H, Kawayama I, Tonouchi M 2018 Apl Photonics 3 051603Google Scholar

    [27]

    杨宏艳, 肖功利 2012 光学学报 32 0716002Google Scholar

    Yang H Y, Xiao G L 2012 Acta Opt. Sin. 32 0716002Google Scholar

    [28]

    Arscott S, Garet F, Mounaix P, Duvillaret L, Coutaz J L, Lippens D 1999 Electron. Lett. 35 433Google Scholar

    [29]

    常文保, 江子伟, 廖一平, 等 2005 分析化学教程 (北京: 北京大学出版社) 第18页

    Chang W B, Jiang Z W, Liao Y P, et al. 2005 Analytical Chemistry Course (Beijing: Peking University Press) p18 (in Chinese)

    [30]

    王志群, 严拯宇, 杜迎翔, 等 2006 分析化学 (南京: 东南大学出版社) 第3页

    Wang Z Q, Yan Z Y, Du Y X, et al. 2006 Analytical Chemistry (Nanjing: Southeast University Press) p3 (in Chinese)

    [31]

    Pupeza I, Wilk R, Koch M 2007 Opt. Express 15 4335Google Scholar

    [32]

    许景周, 张希成 2007 太赫兹科学技术和应用 (北京: 北京大学出版社) 第207页

    Xu J Z, Zhang X C 2007 Terahertz Science and Technology and Applications (Beijing: Peking University Press) p207 (in Chinese)

    [33]

    Dorney T D, Baraniuk R G, Mittleman D M 2001 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18 1562Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-01-16
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-24
  • 上网日期:  2023-05-04
  • 刊出日期:  2023-06-20

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