2022, 71 (24): 240302.
Quantum computing, based on the inherent superposition and entanglement properties of quantum states, can break through the limits of classical computing power. However, under the present technical conditions, the number of qubits that can be manipulated is still limited. In addition, the preparation of high-precision quantum gates and additional quantum error correction systems requires more auxiliary bits, which leads to extra cost. Therefore, it seems to be a long-term goal to realize a universal fault-tolerant quantum computer.The development of analog quantum computing is a transition path that can be used to simulate many-body physics problems. Quantum walk, as the quantum counterpart of classical random walks, is a research hotspot in analog quantum computing. Owing to the unique quantum superposition characteristics, quantum walk exhibits the ballistic transport properties of outward diffusion, so quantum walk provides acceleration in computing power for various algorithms. Based on quantum walk, different computing models are derived to deal with practical physical problems in different fields, such as biology, physics, economics, and computer science.A large number of technical routes are devoted to the experiments on realizing quantum walk, including optical fiber networks, superconducting systems, nuclear magnetic resonance systems, and trapped ion atom systems. Among these routes, photons are considered as the reliable information carriers in the experiments on quantum walking due to their controllability, long coherence time. and fast speed.Therefore, in this review, we focus on different quantum walk theories and experimental implementations in optical versions, such as traditional optical platforms, optical fiber platforms, and integrated optical quantum platform. In recent years, the rapid development of integrated optical quantum platforms has driven the experiments on quantum walk to move towards the stage of integration and miniaturization, and at the same time, the experimental scale and the number of qubits have gradually increased.To this end, we summarize the technological progress of integrated optical quantum computing, including various integrated optical quantum experimental platforms and their applications. Secondly, we specifically discuss the experiment on quantum walk and practical applications based on integrated optical quantum platforms. Finally, we briefly describe other quantum algorithms and corresponding experimental implementations.These quantum computing schemes provide computational speedups for specific physical problems. In the future, with the further development of integrated optical quantum technology, along with the increase in the number of controllable qubits and the realization of the supporting quantum error correction system, a larger-scale many-body physical system can be constructed to further expand these algorithms and move towards the field of optical quantum computing, a new stage.